Reports Archive

2021


PeopleForBikes COVID Participation Study

The COVID-19 pandemic brought unexpected challenges to the health, livelihood and well-being of communities across the world last year. Working, shopping and getting around fundame ...

Where Do We Go From Here? Breaking Down Barriers to Bicycling in the U.S.

Even without the recent upsurge brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, bicycling has increased in popularity in many U.S. cities over the last decade. However, as the number of bicyc ...

2020


Gocycle Research Shows Owning an E-Bike Makes You Healthier, Happier and Less Likely to Use Your Car

E-bike riders are healthy, happier and less likely to use their car according to new research from leading urban e-bike brand Gocycle. ...

Speeds of Young E-Cyclists on Urban Streets and Related Risk Factors: An Observational Study in Israel

In Israel, a growing use of electric bicycles by youngsters has been noted, with an increase in related injuries. In this study, an observational survey was conducted on typical ur ...

The National Study of the Economic Impact of Street Improvements

This research project explores the economic impacts of bicycle and pedestrian street improvements in the United States using multiple data sources and analytical approaches. Buildi ...

Evaluation of the potential of classic and electric bicycle commuting as an impetus for the transition towards environmentally sustainable cities: A case study of the university campuses in Liege, Belgium

To address the negative effects of car use, conventional and electric bicycles are often proposed as environment-friendly alternatives. The aim of this research is to identify the ...

eMTB Trail Etiquette Guidelines

Electric-assist mountain bikes (eMTBs) are similar to traditional mountain bikes, but with a pedal assist. They can handle natural surface trail terrain and many models offer the s ...

E-bikes - Key Questions and Answers & Talking Points

PeopleForBikes published a list of key questions and answers about electric bikes that provides talking points to many common questions about electric bikes. ...

E-Bike Advocacy Guide for Retailers

Electric bicycle (e-bike) laws differ in every state, and can be confusing for consumers, retailers, and suppliers. With clear rules on how and where to ride an e-bike, everyone st ...

2019


Physical activity of electric bicycle users compared to conventional bicycle users and non-cyclists: Insights based on health and transport data from an online survey in seven European cities

This study aimed to compare physical activity levels of e-bikers and conventional bicycle users (cyclists) as well as across e-bike user groups based on the transport mode substitu ...

E-bike safety. A review of Empirical European and North American Studies

This white paper will review and synthesize the recent and emerging research on e-bike safety to explore existing safety evidence that shows the differences in e-bike safety outcom ...

PBIC - Using Connectivity Measures to Evaluate and Build Connected Bicycle Networks

The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center's (PBIC) mission has been to improve the quality of life in communities through the increase of safe walking and bicycling as a viable ...

Mountain biker attitudes and perceptions of eMTBs (electric‑mountain bikes)

Three predominant themes emerged: What is an eMTB?, Trails, and How should eMTBs be used? There was general confusion about the features and capabilities of eMTBs except by those w ...

The E-Bike Potential: Estimating the Effect of E-Bikes on Person Miles Travelled and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Many cities have goals for reducing automotive VMT in order to reduce tailpipe emissions and to reduce congestion. Conventional cycling is a good solution, though its uptake has sl ...

Pedal-Assist Mountain Bikes: A Pilot Study Comparison of the Exercise Response, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Experienced Mountain Bikers

The average heart rate during eMTB use was 94% (31/33) of the average heart rate during conventional mountain bike use. Therefore, eMTB use in this study achieved a majority of the ...

How E-Bike Incentive Programs are Used to Expand the Market

The goal of this white paper is to provide policymakers, agency leads, and local community leaders with a range of techniques to develop and structure e-bike incentive programs to ...

2018


Engage, Plan, Build, Measure: A Guide For City Leaders

Maybe you think your city or town can’t build better places for bikes because you don’t have enough money, or are short on staff, lack strong community support or simply don’t have ...

Effect of E-Bike Versus Bike Commuting on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Adults: A 4-Week Randomized Pilot Study

To assess if active commuting with an electrically assisted bicycle (e-bike) during a 4-week period can induce increases in cardiorespiratory fitness measured as peak oxygen uptake ...

The Safety of E-Bikes in The Netherlands

Whilst results suggest that e-bike and classic bike users are equally likely to be involved in a crash and the severity of crashes are also about equal, the overall impact of e-bik ...

Activating Support for Building Bike Infrastructure

Our newly released research is the deepest dive yet into public perceptions of bikes and mobility. ...

Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle

Cycling on the E-bike resulted in lower trip duration and exercise intensity, compared with the conventional bicycle. However, most of the time was spent in MVPA. This suggests tha ...

A North American Survey of Electric Bicycle Owners

Through analysis of the survey responses, it became evident that e-bikes are making it possible for more people to ride a bicycle, many of whom are incapable of riding a standard b ...

U.S. Bicycling Participation Report Archive

How many Americans ride a bike? How often do they ride? Why do they ride? ...

PBIC - Bicycle and Pedestrian Count Programs: Summary of Practice and Key Resources

The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center's (PBIC) mission has been to improve the quality of life in communities through the increase of safe walking and bicycling as a viable ...

Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review

Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have been highlighted as a method of active travel that could overcome some of the commonly reported barriers to cycle commuting. The objec ...

E-bikes, Electric Assist Bikes, and Transportation Policy

APBP performed a study of electric bikes and found that they can play a significant role to increase bike ridership numbers. ...

2017


Protected Bikes Lanes 101

Protected bike lanes are a simple concept, really: they're like sidewalks for bikes. ...

“Cycling was never so easy!” An analysis of e-bike commuters' motives, travel behaviour and experiences using GPS-tracking and interviews

Results demonstrate that e-bikes can substitute motorized commuting modes on distances perceived to be too long to cover by regular bike, and stress the importance of positive expe ...

Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles

For e-bike trials, riders reported higher levels of enjoyment and lower need for a shower than walk or conventional bicycle trials. This paper adds to the expanding literature by c ...

E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research

E-bikes have the potential to displace conventional motorised (internal combustion) modes, but there are open questions about their role in displacing traditional bicycles. E-bike ...

PBIC - Defining Connected Bike Networks

The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center's (PBIC) mission has been to improve the quality of life in communities through the increase of safe walking and bicycling as a viable ...

PeopleForBikes / Bicycle Product Suppliers Association eMTB Intercept Study

In April 2017, a study was conducted by the national non-profit bicycling advocacy group PeopleForBikes, with support from the industry association the Bicycle Product Suppliers As ...

Better Bicycling, Better Business: A Guide for Retailers

As a member of the bicycle industry, you can play a key role in efforts to accelerate local bicycling projects. This guide, part of a new PeopleForBikes program called PlacesForBik ...

e-bike Study Findings

Jefferson County Colorado conducted demonstrations of e-bikes around their community and saw significantly more residents approving of electric bike usage across different terrain. ...

E-bikes and Trails: Measuring Impact and Acceptance of Class 1 E-bikes on Trails

Jefferson County Colorado measured electric bike impact around their community and saw significantly more residents approving of electric bike usage across different terrain. ...

2016


Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior

Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. The results presented in this ...

Effective Study Tours – Turning Inspiration Into Action

This report is designed to help people organize and lead effective study tours, and serves as a primer for those interested in the study tour experience. It begins with a short sum ...

Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders

We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e- ...

Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode

Participants rode a pedelec in the real world at a self-selected moderate intensity, which helped them meet physical activity recommendations. Pedelec commuting also resulted in si ...

Quick Builds For Better Streets – A New Project Delivery Model for U.S. Cities

This report draws on the experiences of Austin, Chicago, Denver, Memphis, New York, Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Seattle to create a general guide for adding this exciting, effect ...

Evaluation of Electric Bike Use at Three Kaiser Permanente NW Employment Centers in Portland Metro Region

This report examines the results of an electric bike (e-bike) pilot project, which took place April 2014-September 2015 in the Portland region. Participants from three Kaiser Perma ...

2015


Building Equity – Race, Class and Protected Bike Lanes

PeopleForBikes interviewed organizers, planners, leaders and activists in communities of color around the country who are working to build connected, all-ages bike networks. The re ...

IMBA eMTB Study Soil Displacement and Erosion Study

In the fall of 2015, under contract with the Bicycle Product Suppliers Association (BPSA), with counsel from a field of recreation management experts, and through a review of exist ...

Survey of land managers on eMTBs

In order to better guide research into the range of potential social and environmental impacts and benefits related to the use of eMTBs on natural surface trails, IMBA and the BPSA ...

2014


Freight Tricycle Operations in New York City

As cities become more congested and increasingly focused on sustainability, cargo cycles offer a potential alternative to motorized vehicles for local and last-mile goods delivery. ...

Comprehensive library of e-bike research on the Light Electric Vehicle Education + Research (LEVER) Initiative website

The Light Electric Vehicle Education and Research (LEVER) Initiative is a consortium of Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) researchers and educators that currently includes faculty and s ...

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