Statistics Library / Participation Statistics

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Demographics:

Children from low-income and minority households, particularly blacks and Hispanics, are more likely to bike or walk to school than whites or higher-income students.
McDonald, N., 2008 - Critical factors for active transportation to school among low-income and minority students: Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 341-3

The average North American bicycle commuter is a 39-year-old male professional with a household income in excess of $45,000 who rides 10.6 months per year.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

Bicycling is highest among whites and Hispanics (0.9% of all trips are taken by bike). For whites, bicycles are mostly used for recreation, while for Hispanics, they are typically used to reach the workplace.
Pucher, J., and J. Renne, 2003 - Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, 57, 49-77

In northern Europe there are no significant differences in cycling rates among income classes or sexes.
Pucher, J., and R. Buehler, 2008 - Cycling for everyone: Lessons from Europe, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2074, 58-65

Access to a bicycle rises with household income. According to a government survey of nearly 10,000 Americans: just 29% of those with household incomes less than $15,000 had regular access to a bicycle 47% with incomes $30,000-$49,000 had access 65% with incomes $75,000 or more had access.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

87% of U.S. competitive cyclists are male, and 12% are female. Most (32%) are 35-44 years old and are from California (17%).
USA Cycling, 2009 - Active member demographics

In the U.S., men's cycling trips surpass women's by at least 2:1. In the Netherlands, 55% of riders are women. In Germany, 49% of bike trips are made by women.
Baker, L. 2009 - "How to get more bicyclists on the road: To boost urban bicycling, figure out what women want," Scientific American Magazine, October 16, 2009

In the U.S., 24% of all bicycle trips are made by women and 76% are made by men.
U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010 - 2009 National Household Travel Survey

A census of cyclists in Calgary, Canada found that 75% of cyclists commuting downtown were male. Women were more likely than men to be possible or occasional cyclists, while men were more likely than women to be regular cyclists. Women were more concerned about safety, being able to carry daily items, and the need to fix their hair.
Twaddle, H., et al., 2011 - Latent bicycle commuting demand and effects of gender on commuter cycling and accident rates, Transportation Research Record, 2190/2010, 28-36

Over the last 25 years, cycling among the higher income brackets of Amsterdam has more than doubled (from 15% to 33%). Over the same period, bicycle ownership increased from 63% to 73% among all residents.
Fietsberaad, 2011 - "Higher income brackets cycle as well in Amsterdam"

Western US states have the highest bicycling rates, while southern states have extremely low levels of bicycling.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Almost all of the growth in bicycling in the U.S. over the past two decades has been among men between 25-64 years old.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Bicycling rates don't very much by income level, but bicycling purposes do. Low-income persons bike mainly for utilitarian purposes, and high-income persons bike more for recreation and exercise.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Bicycling is becoming more diverse. Between 2001 and 2009, cycling rates rose fastest among African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Those three groups also account for a growing share of all bike trips, rising from 16% in 2001 to 21% in 2009.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

A survey of casual bike share users in Washington, D.C. found that 75% were traveling in groups of two or more, and that 60% did not identify themselves as "cyclists".
Buehler, R., et al., 2012 - Virginia Tech Capital Bikeshare study, A closer look at casual users and operations

Due to recent increases in local bicycling infrastructure, the Twin Cities has one of the nation's highest rates of women bicyclists, between 37-45%.
Reeves, H. 2012 - "Spokes & soles // As infrastructure improves, more Twin Cities women bike," Southwest Journal, 11 June 2012

Men and women’s perceptions of safety and of the feasibility of bicycling differ; women are more sensitive to the absence of bike lanes and trails.
Akar, G., Fischer, N., and Namgung, M. 2013 - Bicycling Choice and Gender Case Study: The Ohio State University, Int. J. of Sust. Trans., Volume 7, Issue 5

In a series of focus groups exploring barriers to bicycling in Portland, 100% of the African American participants expressed a fear that drivers would be hostile to them while they were cycling; no Hispanic and African participants expressed that fear.
Community Cycling Center, 2012 - Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project Final Report, July 2012

The costs of purchasing a bicycle was cited as a major obstacle to cycling by 60% of participants in focus groups of African, African American and Hispanic Portland residents.
Community Cycling Center, 2012 - Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project Final Report, July 2012

While 11% of all U.S. adults are African American, only 5.1% of U.S. bike riders in 2010 were African American. Similarly, 14% of Americans are Hispanic, but only 6.4% of U.S. bike riders in 2010 were Hispanic.
The Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - American Bicyclist Study

The number of children riding bicycles declined by more than 20% between 2000 and 2010 (even as the number of children in this country increased by 3%), while the number of adults riding bicycles increased slightly.
Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - The American Bicyclist Study

The number of women cycling decreased by 13 percent between 2000 and 2010, except among those women who are enthusiasts, and rode 110 days per year or more; their numbers increased by 8% that same decade.
Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - The American Bicyclist Study


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Ethnic diversity :

Children from low-income and minority households, particularly blacks and Hispanics, are more likely to bike or walk to school than whites or higher-income students.
McDonald, N., 2008 - Critical factors for active transportation to school among low-income and minority students: Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 341-3

In a series of focus groups exploring barriers to bicycling in Portland, 100% of the African American participants expressed a fear that drivers would be hostile to them while they were cycling; no Hispanic and African participants expressed that fear.
Community Cycling Center, 2012 - Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project Final Report, July 2012

The costs of purchasing a bicycle was cited as a major obstacle to cycling by 60% of participants in focus groups of African, African American and Hispanic Portland residents.
Community Cycling Center, 2012 - Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project Final Report, July 2012

35% of participants in focus groups made up of of African, African American and Hispanic Portland residents said that they did not have a place to store a bicycle where it would not get stolen.
Community Cycling Center, 2012 - Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project Final Report, July 2012

While 11% of all U.S. adults are African American, only 5.1% of U.S. bike riders in 2010 were African American. Similarly, 14% of Americans are Hispanic, but only 6.4% of U.S. bike riders in 2010 were Hispanic.
The Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - American Bicyclist Study


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Incentives and events:

People who have flexible work schedules are more likely to bike commute than those who don't.
Sener et al., 2008 - An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

38% of Washingtonians who bicycle commuted for the first time during a ride to work day commuted by bike after the event.
Rose, G., and H. Marfurt, 2007 - Travel behaviour change impacts of a major ride to work day event, Transportation Research Part A, 41, 351-64

Workers whose commutes are shortest and go through the most connected streets are the most likely to bike or walk to work.
Badland, H., et al., 2008 - Travel behavior and objectively measured urban design variables: associations for adults traveling to work, Health & Place, 14, 85-95

Workers who are inactive are less likely to try biking or walking to work than those who are already physically active.
Merom, D., et al., 2008 - Predictors of initiating and maintaining active commuting to work using transport and public health perspectives in Australia, Preventive Medicine, 47, 342-346

A person is 7% more likely to bike or walk to non-work activities for every 1,000 retail workers within a half mile of their home.
Chatman (2005) in Arrington, G., and R. Cervero, 2008 - Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel, Transit Cooperative Research Program Report 128

A £2 ($3.90) daily payment for commuting to work would double the level of cycling and reduce car demand by 5.4%.
Wardman, M., et al., 2007 - Factors influencing the propensity to cycle to work, Transportation Research Part A, 41, 339-50

27% of Australians who bicycle commuted for the first time during a ride to work day were still commuting by bicycle five months after the event.
Rose, G., and H. Marfurt, 2007 - Travel behaviour change impacts of a major ride to work day event, Transportation Research Part A, 41, 351-64

According to a survey of British bike commuters, 40% took up cycling commuting for their health, 30% started riding to save money on fuel, and only 7% stated environmental concerns as their primary motivation for biking to work.
Cycleguard, 2009 - in "Health and fitness converting more cyclists," M. Sutton, Bike Biz, June 4, 2009

People are more likely to bike for transportation if they have social support from family and friends.
De Bourdeaudhuij, I., et al., 2005 - Environmental and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in Portuguese and Belgian adults, Public Health Nutrition, 8, 886–895

Most Americans say they would stop driving alone to work and seek alternate transportation when gasoline prices are at $4 or $5.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

As bicyclists become more comfortable with riding, the number and percentage of weekly trips taken by bike increase significantly.
Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009 - Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington, presented to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, September 8, 2009

Riding in "ciclovia" events is associated with more utilitarian cycling.
Gomez et al., 2005 - in Pucher, J., et al., 2009, "International Review of Cycling Interventions," Preventive Medicine

43% of Denver bike sharing service, B-cycle, members said they used the bikes to replace car trips.
Denver B-cycle, 2010 - Denver B-cycle finishes successful first season with 102,000 B-cycle rides

The prevalence of cycling is higher is areas with higher gasoline prices and less urban sprawl.
Rashad, I., 2009 - "Associations of cycling with urban sprawl and the gasoline price," American Journal of Health Promotion, 24, 27-36

In a 2007 survey of young professionals, 92% said they prefer to work for a company that is environmentally friendly.
Business Wire, 2007 - MonsterTRAK Joins Forces with ecoAmerica to Launch GreenCareers by MonsterTRAK

During San Francisco's 2010 Bike to Work Day, bicycles accounted for 75% of traffic on Market Street.
San Francisco Bicycle Coalition, 2010 - "Bicycles account for 75% of Morning Traffic; Another Record-breaking Year", 13 May 2010

According to a survey of 710 female mountain bikers, 46% said they first learned about mountain biking from a partner and 44% said a friend invited them out to ride.
Sacred Rides Mountain Bike Adventures, 2010 - Women of Mountain Biking survey report

Bicycling comfort, an aversion to driving, a utilitarian biking culture, and short distances to destinations are key factors for high levels of transportation bicycling.
Xing, Y., et al., 2010 - Factors associated with proportions and miles of bicycling for transportation and recreation in six small US cities, Transportation Research Part D, 15

According to a survey of Bike to Work Day participants in Washington, D.C., 17 percent said they had never bike commuted before the event, 10 percent started riding to work after the event, and 22 percent started riding more often.
National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, 2011 - Bike to Work Day 2011

A survey of Australian adults found that three in five have access to a bike, but many don't ride at all or as much as they want to due to road and safety issues. Respondents said that separated bike paths would encourage them to start riding at all or more often.
Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011 - Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings

A survey of adult Georgians found that 92% agree that encouraging bicycling is a long-term investment in a higher quality of life for their community, and more than 4 in 5 Georgians say they would ride a bike more frequently if their community had better bike facilities.
University of Georgia, 2011 - 2011 Statewide Survey on Bicycle Issues

The percentage of Americans who mostly used a bicycle to get to work increased by 47% between 2000 and 2011.
Cox, W. 2012 - A summary of 2011 commuting data released today, newgeography.com, September 20, 2012

Employees are less likely to cycle to work if their employer provides free car parking, and more likely to cycle to work if their employer provides bike parking and showers.
Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center, 2009 - Trends and Determinants of Cycling in the Washington, D.C., Region


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Interesting facts:

By summer 2014, protected lane projects were on the ground in 53 U.S. cities and 24 states. By the end of the year the country had more than 200, quadruple the number in 2010.
Green Lane Project, 2014 - Inventory of Protected Green Lanes

Bike and ride trips account for 3% of all public transport trips.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

In the Netherlands, 86% of people have a positive opinion of the car, while 5% have a negative opinion; 84% of Dutch have a positive opinion of the bicycle, while 7% have a negative opinion.
Fietsberaad, 2009 - "Car and bicycle are very highly appreciated"

30% of bike commuters use a mountain bike, 28% a road bike, 18% a hybrid, and 17% a touring bike. 35% of bike commuters own a second, bad-weather bike.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

The average commuting bicycle costs $687.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

On the average day when an adult rides a bicycle, he or she rides for about 40 minutes.
Estimating bicycling demand, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939, 45-51

In the Yukon Territory, twice as many people bike to work as in California, and three times as many as in Florida.
Pucher, J., and R. Buehler, 2006 - Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies, Transport Policy, 13, 265-79

Europeans bicycle an average of 188 km per year; United States residents bike only 40 km a year.
Bassett, Jr., et al., 2008 - Walking, cycling, and obesity rates in Europe, North America, and Australia, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5, 795-814

People who cycle more are generally more positive about bicycling for transportation. Only 5% of Dutch frequent cyclists have a negative opinion of cycling, compared to 29% of infrequent cyclists.
Fietsberaad, 2009 - "Car and bicycle are very highly appreciated"

High school students are less likely to bike or walk to school if they are girls, in grade 12, smoke daily, are low-moderate in physical activity, or attend a rural school.
Robertson-Wilson, J., et al., 2008 - Social-ecological correlates of active commuting to school among high school students, Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 486-95

From 1977-1995, the number of bicycle trips taken in the U.S. doubled.
Pucher, J., et al., 1999 - Bicycling renaissance in North America?: Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling, Transportation Research Part A, 33, 625-54

89% of bicycle trips begin at a residence.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Bicycling for non-commuting purposes generally precedes bicycling for commuting.
Sener et al., 2008 - An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

Communities with more parks have significantly higher levels of bicycling and walking for transportation.
Zlot, A., and T. Schmid, 2005 - Relationships among community characteristics and walking and bicycling for transportation or recreation, American Journal of Health Promotion, 19, 314-7

Bicyclists with more automobiles in their household are less likely to bicycle for any purpose. The more bicycles a cyclist owns, the more likely they are to choose to bicycle.
Sener et al., 2008 - An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

Work trips account for only 15% of all trips.
U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2001 - 2001 National Household Travel Survey

The average bicycle commuter has been commuting by bike for 8.3 years.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

In 2007, 130 million bicycles were produced worldwide, more than twice the 52 million cars produced.
Roney, J., 2008 - Bicycles Pedaling into the Spotlight, Earth Policy Insititute

American mothers spend over an hour a day driving, on average, which adds up to almost 17 days behind the wheel per year. Moms also spend more time driving than the average parent spends dressing, bathing, and feeding a child.
Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, 1999 - High Mileage Moms

In a 2009 survey of Portland, Oregon cyclists, more than two-thirds said that they attempted to bike during a time of severe snowstorms. Of those who did not decide to bike, the most common reasons for not biking were concern for safety (75%) and road conditions (77%).
Maus, J., 2009 - "Mayor's office releases results of bike-specific storm survey," BikePortland.org, March 17, 2009

Two-thirds of all driving trips to shuttle others around are made by women. Whether working or not, mothers with school-aged children make 20% more trips than the average woman and 21% more than the average man.
Surface Transportation Policy Partnership, 1999 - High Mileage Moms

Nearly nine out of 10 bicyclists in Oregon and southwest Washington also own and drive automobiles. Car ownership level doesn't differ between less- and more-experienced cyclists, but car usage drops significantly as cyclists become more experienced
Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009 - Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington, presented to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, September 8, 2009

One-quarter of Copenhagen families with two or more children have a cargo bike.
Rohl, A., 2009 - in "Summit starts with lessons from Copenhagen," J. Maus, BikePortland.org, March 10, 2009

In Copenhagen, the ratio of bikes to people is 1:1.
Rohl, A., 2009 - in "Summit starts with lessons from Copenhagen," J. Maus, BikePortland.org, March 10, 2009

In Copenhagen, 50% of cyclists say they bike because it is easy and fast, 42% do it for the exercise, 27% bike for the convenience, 25% state financial reasons, and 7% bike for environmental reasons. 
City of Copenhagen, 2014 - Bicycle Account, 2014

In Portland, Oregon 7,100 daily trips or 21% of all trips on the Hawthorne Bridge over the Willamette River are made by bike. If those 7,100 trips were made by car, Portland would have to build a new bridge.
Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009 - Portland Bicycle Count Report 2009

People who are concerned about the time it takes to bike or walk for transportation are less likely to ride a bike.
Akar, G., and K. Clifton, 2010 - Influence of individual perceptions and bicycle infrastructure on decision to bike, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 2140

Only 8% of U.S. households don't have a vehicle available for regular use.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

Americans make an average of 4 trips a day, totaling 40 miles on average.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

Fifteen percent of all trips are made for commuting to work.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

Americans drive 55 minutes per day on average.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

A UK study asked the general public about their opinions of cycling. Respondents said: 65% thought bike riding is "normal" 7% thought cyclists were "strange" 69% believed that cyclists should be taken seriously 43% wished they were cycling when they were stuck in traffic 50% disagreed with the statement that "Roads are meant for cars not bikes" 6% cycled at least once a week 28% cycled occasionally Just over half owned a bicycle
Pidd, H., 2010 - "Cyclists! The public thinks you're cool and normal," Guardian.co.uk Bike Blog

There is little correlation between population density and cycling rate.
Hembrow, D., 2011 - "Population density vs. cycling rate for a range of cities," A View from the Cycle Path, 28 February 2011

According to a regular survey of Copenhagen residents: 80% have access to a bicycle; More than 1 in 4 families with two or more children own a cargo bike or trailer; 50% cycle because it's faster than other modes; only 7% ride due to environmental/climate concerns; Just 6% of city cyclists say they feel unsafe.
Copenhagen Traffic Department - Copenhagen City of Cyclists: Bicycle Account 2014

A survey of cyclists from Oregon and Southwest Washington found that 89% own at least one automobile.
Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009 - Bicycling perceptions and experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington

Bike and ride trips account for 3% of all public transport trips.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

Less than one-third of working Americans commute five miles or less one-way.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - From home to work, the average commute is 26.4 miles, OmniStats Volume 3 Issue 4, October 2003

A survey of users of Portland, Oregon's Intertwine path system found that 22% of bicyclists were using the paths for pleasure or exercise (compared to 97% of pedestrians) and 76% of bicyclists were using it for commuting to work or school (compared to 2% of pedestrians)
Oregon Metro, 2011 - Intertwine trail use snapshot

A study found large increases in bicycling ridership in New Orleans neighborhood after the installation of new bike lanes.
Parker, K., et. al., 2013 - Effect of Bike Lane Infrastructure Improvements on Ridership in One New Orleans Neighborhood, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45-1, 101-107

Due to recent increases in local bicycling infrastructure, the Twin Cities has one of the nation's highest rates of women bicyclists, between 37-45%.
Reeves, H. 2012 - "Spokes & soles // As infrastructure improves, more Twin Cities women bike," Southwest Journal, 11 June 2012


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From 2010 to 2015 recreation bicycling was relatively stable with nearly 42,000 Americans riding in 2010 to more than 43,000 in 2015 (up 4%). Road riding was down 3% but mountain biking grew 16%.
Sports Marketing Surveys, Inc. - Sports Marketing Surveys, Inc.

From 2007-2016, bike commuting nearly doubled in the 50 largest U.S. cities.
Bicycling and Walking Benchmarking Report 2016 - Bicycling and Walking Benchmarking Report 2016

More than 200,000 people bike every day in New York City. Cycling has increased 26% between 2008 and 2009.
Hughes, T., 2010 - "City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs," USAToday.com, 11 May 2010

Trips for recreation, exercise, and sports accounted for 49% of bike trips in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the share of all bike trips made for utilitarian reasons increased from 43% to 51%.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

From 2000 to 2009, bike crashes in Minneapolis, MN dropped 20%, while the number of city bicyclists increased 174% between 2003 and 2008.
City of Minneapolis, 2010, in Flusche, D., 2011 - "Ridership up, crashes down: 'Safety in Numbers' in Minneapolis," BikeLeague.org blog, 9 February 2011

Bicycling in Minneapolis, Minnesota increased 47% from 2007-2011. From 2010-2011, the city expanded its on-street bikeway network by 75%.
City of Minneapolis Public Works Department, 2012 - 2011 City of Minneapolis Bicycling Account

2008 participation in Oregon's Cross Crusade race series grew 25% from 2007, with an average of 1,045 participants per race.
BikePortland.org, 2008 - "Cross Crusade participation up 25% in 2008"

As of 2008, in some Portland neighborhoods nearly 1/3 of residents use a bicycle as their primary or secondary mode to get to work.
Portland City Auditor, 2008 - Resident Survey Results

In San Francisco the number of cyclists increased 9% from 2008 to 2009 and 53% from 2006.
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2009 - 2009 Bicycle Counts Report

In Pittsburgh the number of bicycle commuters increased 38% between 2006 and 2007.
American Community Survey - in "Nationwide commuting trends, Pittsburgh increases rank in cycling," September 26, 2008, Bike Pittsburgh Blog

In the Washington, D.C., region, an increasing number of daily trips are made for reasons other than commuting to work. Today, one-fifth of all daily trips are for commuting to work, down from one-quarter in 1994 and one-third in 1968. Non-commute trips also tend to be shorter than the median commute, averaging less than four miles compared to 9.3 miles.
Weir, K., 2009 - in "Drivers taking more trips beyond daily commute," Washington Examiner, April 13, 2009

Between 2005 and 2008, bicycling increased 104% in Philadelphia.
Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2008 - Double Dutch: Bicycling Jumps in Philadelphia

Between 2007 and 2008, overall bicycle use in Portland, Oregon increased 28%.
City of Portland Office of Transportation, 2008 - Portland Bicycle Counts 2008

In New York City commuter cycling grew 26% between 2008 and 2009 and 45% since 2007. Cycling levels have more than doubled since 2002, and the number of cyclists crossing the Williamsburg Bridge quadrupled between 2000 and 2009. Since 2007, 200 miles of new bicycle routes have been added to the city's on-street bicycle network. Between 2008 and 2009, cyclist fatalities dropped 54%.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2010 - Mayor Bloomberg, Transportation Commissioner Sadik-Khan Announce All-Time Record Year for Traffic Safety

Colorado's American Cycling Association saw a 23% increase in the number of cyclocross riders from 2007 to 2008, and an overall rider increase of 3.4%.
"ACA is showing strong increase in CX competitors", 303Cycling.com

In Portland, OR, 2008 total traffic fatalities were the lowest in recorded history, with only 20 total fatalities, none of them cyclists. 2008 car, pedestrian, and cyclist fatalities were all at all-time lows.
Ciy of Portland, 2009 - 2008 Fatality Summary

A 2008 poll by Coldwell Banker found that 78% of real estate agents say their clients want to live in an area that helps reduce gasoline costs.
Coldwell Banker, 2008 - "The Benefits of Complete Streets 10: Complete streets lower transportation costs"

In 2009, bicycling participation increased in Minnesota while bicycle crashes and injuries decreased. In Minneapolis, the Midtown Greenway saw a 24% increase in bike riders during the first 4 months of 2009 compared to 2008. Ridership from March-December 2008 was up 32% over the same period in 2007.
McAuliffe, B., 2009 - "There's safety in numbers for those on bikes," Star Tribune, July 23, 2009

More than one-fifth (21%) of Americans say they have changed the way they commute to work because of the recession.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

From 1995 to 2005, China's bike fleet declined by 35 percent (from 670 million to 435 million bikes), while private car ownership more than doubled (from 4.2 million to 8.9 million.)
Roney, J., 2008 - Bicycles Pedaling into the Spotlight, Earth Policy Insititute

In 2008, the number of miles driven in America dropped 3.6% and highway fatalities dropped 9 percent, the lowest fatality level in 50 years.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2009 - in "Road Deaths nationwide fell Sharply in 2008," A. Goodnough, The New York Times, April 7, 2009

The proportion of workers who drove to work alone decreased slightly between 2007 and 2008, from 76.1% to 75.5%.
American Community Survey, 2009 - in Roberts, S., "Census Data Show Recession-Driven Changes," The New York Times, September 22, 2009

10 percent of Boulder, CO residents normally bike to work, nearly 20 times the national average. Since 2000, the number of residents driving alone to work decreased from 61 to 54 percent. During the same time, the national drive-alone work-trip mode share increased 5.1 percent.
City of Boulder Transportation Staff, 2009 - Journey to Work in the City of Boulder: Travel Data Update: October 2009

According to USA Cycling, Lance Armstrong's return to professional bike racing has had a direct impact on the number of U.S. registered bike racers in 2009.
Robbins, K., 2009 - "Lance Armstrong ignites USA Cycling growth," Cyclingnews, November 11, 2009

Between 2007 and 2008, the number of USA Cycling-sanctioned bicycling events increased 2.5% to 2,535 events. The number of clubs increased 3.4% to 2,120, and the number of licensees increased 2.8% to 63,273.
USA Cycling, 2009 - USA Cycling Annual Report 2008

In 2009, the number of bicycle trips in Portland, Oregon decreased 5% from 2008. However, the number of trips made by motorists and transit riders also decreased during the same time period.
Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009 - Portland Bicycle Count Report 2009

In 2012 18.7% of all trips in Boulder, CO were made by bike, an increase from 13.6% in 2006 and 9.1% in 1990. 
City of Boulder, 2012 - Modal Shift in the Boulder Valley

Between 1970 and 2010, the percentage of students traveling by bicycle on the University of California at Santa Barbara increased from 38% to 52%. The share of faculty and staff choosing bikes also increased, from 4% to 11%.
Santa Barbara Bicycle Coalition, 2010 - "Surprises in new UCSB travel survey data," Quick Release, July 2010

A survey of Portland, Oregon businesses found that bicycling is the fastest-growing mode of transport for downtown employees' work commutes.
Maus, J., 2010 - "Portland Business Alliance reports sharp increase in downtown bike commuters," Bikeportland.org, October 4, 2010

In Redding, CA, bicycle traffic increased 80% between 2009 and 2010.
Shasta County Health & Human Services Agency, 2010, in Shigley, P., 2010 - "Survey finds big bicycle ridership increase," anewscafe.com, 16 November 2010

Bicycling in Portland, OR increased 8% between 2009 and 2010.
Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2010 - Portland Bicycle Count Report 2010

More than 200,000 people bike every day in New York City. Cycling has increased 26% between 2008 and 2009.
Hughes, T., 2010 - "City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs," USAToday.com, 11 May 2010

In Minneapolis, bicycling increased 33% from 2007-2010
Bike Walk Twin Cities, 2011 - "March 2011: Bicycling is up 33% from 2007-2010"

Average peak hour bicycling rates in Marin, CA increased 46% on weekdays between 2007 and 2010, and 85% on weekends.
Bernstein-Wax, J., 2011 - "Study: More people walking, biking in Marin," Marin Independent Journal, 3 April 2011

During the past two decades, cycling has increased in the United States. The number of bike commuters rose by 64% from 1990 to 2009.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Analysis of bicycling trends and policies in large North American cities: Lessons for New York

Bicycling for transportation is making up a growing share of all bicycling, increasing from 43% of all bike trips in 2001 to 54% in 2009. While bicycling for recreation is a declining share of all trips, it still has a higher bike mode share than other trip purposes.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Bicycling is growing the fastest in large cities like Chicago, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco, and Portland, OR—at least doubling since 1990. These cities have seen a boom in bicycling because they have consciously worked to grow bicycling. Cities, like Portland, that have implemented a comprehensive range of efforts, including infrastructure, programs, and policies to promote cycling are seeing the best results; in Portland, cycling levels grew six-fold.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

In large US cities where bicycling is growing, bicycling growth is highly concentrated in central cities, but it is still very low in most suburbs.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Bicycling is becoming more diverse. Between 2001 and 2009, cycling rates rose fastest among African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Those three groups also account for a growing share of all bike trips, rising from 16% in 2001 to 21% in 2009.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Trips for recreation, exercise, and sports accounted for 49% of bike trips in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the share of all bike trips made for utilitarian reasons increased from 43% to 51%.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

Bicycling in New York City increased 8% between 2010 and 2011, 102% since 2007, and 289% compared to 2001. During the same time, safety increased for all road users.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011 - "NYC DOT Announces Commuter Biking has Doubled in the Last Four Years..."

Between 2003 and 2007, bike commuting in Minneapolis increased 100%. Since 2000, bike crashes have declined 20% on average every year.
Bike Walk Twin Cities in Bike.Walk.Move.org, 2011 - Infographic highlights biking, walking in Twin Cities, November 1, 2011

After the BIXI bike sharing system was implemented in Montreal, individuals who lived within 1km of a station were more likely to cycle for transportation.
Fuller, D., et al., 2011 - Evaluating the impact of implementing a public bike share program on utilitarian cycling: The case of BIXI in Montreal, Canada, 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference presentation abstract

Bicycling in Minneapolis, Minnesota increased 47% from 2007-2011. From 2010-2011, the city expanded its on-street bikeway network by 75%.
City of Minneapolis Public Works Department, 2012 - 2011 City of Minneapolis Bicycling Account

Worldwide sales of electric bicycles are predicted to reach 30 million units in 2012 and 51 million units and $13.2 billion in revenue by 2018.
Pike Research, 2012 - "Annual Sales of Electric Bikes will Surpass 47 Million by 2018, Forecasts Pike Research"

From 2006-2011, bicycling in San Francisco increased 71 percent. From 2010-2011, it increased 7 percent, making up 3.5 % of all trips in the city. The greatest growth in bicycling came on Market Street, which has green, protected bikeways. On Market Street, bicycling increased 115% from 2006, and 43% from 2010.
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2012 - 2011 Bicycle Count Report

Bicycling in Portland, Oregon increased 6.4% between 2010 and 2011. Overall, bike traffic is up 219% from 2001.
Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2012 - 2011 Bicycle Counts Report

A study found large increases in bicycling ridership in New Orleans neighborhood after the installation of new bike lanes.
Parker, K., et. al., 2013 - Effect of Bike Lane Infrastructure Improvements on Ridership in One New Orleans Neighborhood, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45-1, 101-107

Due to recent increases in local bicycling infrastructure, the Twin Cities has one of the nation's highest rates of women bicyclists, between 37-45%.
Reeves, H. 2012 - "Spokes & soles // As infrastructure improves, more Twin Cities women bike," Southwest Journal, 11 June 2012

The percentage of Americans who mostly used a bicycle to get to work increased by 47% between 2000 and 2011.
Cox, W. 2012 - A summary of 2011 commuting data released today, newgeography.com, September 20, 2012

The number of children riding bicycles declined by more than 20% between 2000 and 2010 (even as the number of children in this country increased by 3%), while the number of adults riding bicycles increased slightly.
Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - The American Bicyclist Study

The number of women cycling decreased by 13 percent between 2000 and 2010, except among those women who are enthusiasts, and rode 110 days per year or more; their numbers increased by 8% that same decade.
Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - The American Bicyclist Study


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Seniors:

22 percent of the net growth in U.S. bike trips from 1995-2009 is by people ages 60-79. Their biking quadrupled in those 14 years, the fastest growth of any demographic.
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

In the Netherlands, adults 75 or older make a quarter of all trips by bike. In Germany, adults 75 make 7% of trips by bike. In the U.S., adults 65 or older make only 0.4% of all trips by bike.
Pucher, J., and J. Renne, 2003 - Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, 57, 49-77

More than half of older adults who reported an inhospitable biking, walking, and transit environment outside their homes said they would bicycle, walk, and take transit more if their streets were improved.
National Complete Streets Coalition - The Benefits of Complete Streets 3: Complete streets improve mobility for older Americans

Therapy bicycling programs have been shown to decrease depression in older adults.
Fitzsimmons, S., and L. Buettner - "Easy Rider wheelchair biking: A nursing-recreation therapy clinical trial for the treatment of depression"

According to a survey of 710 female mountain bikers, 46% said they first learned about mountain biking from a partner and 44% said a friend invited them out to ride.
Sacred Rides Mountain Bike Adventures, 2010 - Women of Mountain Biking survey report

More than one-fifth of Americans age 65 and older do not drive. Those who don't drive make 65% fewer trips for social, family, and religious activities, 59% fewer shopping and restaurant trips, and 15% fewer trips to the doctor.
Bailey, L., 2004 - Aging Americans: Stranded without Options

In a survey of Portland residents, those people who are interested in cycling but concerned about their safety reported that they would be much more comfortable in a physically separated bike lane than in a painted bike lane.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)

Cycling to school is associated with lower odds of being overweight or obese for adolescents.
Ostergaard, A.G. et al, 2012 - Cycle to school is associated with lower BMI and lower odds of being overweight or obese in a large population-based study of Danish adolescents, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Volume 9


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The basics:

Bicycling is the second most popular outdoor activity among youth in America, and it is the outdoor activity they do with the second-highest frequency. Among adults, it is the fourth most popular and the second most frequent.
Outdoor Foundation, 2016 - Outdoor Foundation, 2016

From 2007-2016, bike commuting increased from .4% to .6%
Bicycling and Walking Benchmarking Report 2016 - Bicycling and Walking Benchmarking Report 2016

More than 200,000 people bike every day in New York City. Cycling has increased 26% between 2008 and 2009.
Hughes, T., 2010 - "City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs," USAToday.com, 11 May 2010

Less than 2% of Americans cycle daily, and less than 1% achieve 30 minutes of physical activity on any given day.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

Trips for recreation, exercise, and sports accounted for 49% of bike trips in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the share of all bike trips made for utilitarian reasons increased from 43% to 51%.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

54% of bicycle commuters commute by bike year-round.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

In 2009, 1% of all U.S. trips were made by bicycle, an increase of 25% from 2001.
U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009 - National Household Travel Survey

71% of Americans say they would like to bicycle more than they do now.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

During the summer of 2002, an estimated 2.5 billion bicycling trips were made by people 16 and older in the U.S.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Why do people commute by bicycle? According to a survey of 2,400 cyclists: 95% ride for health and fitness, 82% do it for the environment, 52% bike to avoid congestion, 46% ride to save money on gasoline, and 34% want to avoid car-parking costs and availability
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

The average bicycle commuter makes eight one-way trips to work per week.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

40 percent of all trips in the U.S. are three miles or less, and two-thirds of them happen in cars.
U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009 - National Household Travel Survey

The average bicycle commute is 7.5 miles each way and takes 30.7 minutes.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

Nearly 60% of all bike trips are 1 mile or less.
U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration, 2009 - National Household Travel Survey

The #1 reason given for not bicycling is a lack of access to a bicycle.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Less than half (46%) of Americans 16 and older have regular access to a bicycle.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

More U.S. adults participate in bicycling than in any other outdoor sport, motorized or non-motorized. In fact, Americans take more bike trips than trips for all types of motorized outdoor sports combined.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2012 - The Economic Contributions of Outdoor Recreation: Technical Report 2012

Availability of a bicycle in a household is the strongest single predictor of bicycling for transportation. 
Cervero, et al., 2009 - In Pucher, et. al. 2010 Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review, Preventative Medicine

A review of 139 studies concluded that substantial increases in bicycling require an integrated package of numerous interventions, including bike-specific infrastructure and pro-bicycle programs, as well as supportive land use planning and restrictions on automobile use. 
Pucher, et. al. 2010 - Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review, Preventative Medicine

There is an average of 1.90 vehicles and 0.86 adult-size bicycles per U.S. household.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

During an average week, 30% of the German population use a bicycle for transportation. The average cyclist uses a bicycle three days a week for about 30% of their trips.
Kuhnimhof, T., et al., 2011 - Multimodal travel choices of bicyclists: Multiday analysis of bicycle use in Germany, Transportation Research Record, 2190/2010, 19-27

More than 200,000 people bike every day in New York City. Cycling has increased 26% between 2008 and 2009.
Hughes, T., 2010 - "City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs," USAToday.com, 11 May 2010

Sixty percent of people in England who are able to ride a bike are deterred from cycling because they feel it's unsafe to cycle on roads. More than half said they would start riding or ride more often if there were more cycle paths.
Thornton, A., et al., 2010 - Climate Change and Transport Choices, Department of Transport

The average American bikes or walks for an average of 20 minutes for exercise and 14 minutes for other purposes every day.
U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010 - NHTS Brief: Active Travel, December 2010

Approximately one-quarter of U.S. adults use a biking, walking, or hiking trail at least once per week.
Librett, J., et al., 2006 - Characteristics of physical activity levels among trail users in a U.S. national sample, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31, 399-405

According to a regular survey of Copenhagen residents: 80% have access to a bicycle; More than 1 in 4 families with two or more children own a cargo bike or trailer; 50% cycle because it's faster than other modes; only 7% ride due to environmental/climate concerns; Just 6% of city cyclists say they feel unsafe.
Copenhagen Traffic Department - Copenhagen City of Cyclists: Bicycle Account 2014

A survey of New York City bicyclists found: The majority of cyclists prefer riding on off-street bike facilities to on-street (76%); The most common reasons non-commuting cyclists don't bike commute to work are driver behavior/traffic and lack of safe storage at work; The most common reasons people bike commute are because it is healthy/good exercise and it is environmentally friendly; The average bike commute takes 35 minutes
New York City Department of City Planning, 2007 - The New York City Bicycle Survey, May 2007

Less than 2% of Americans cycle daily, and less than 1% achieve 30 minutes of physical activity on any given day.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

Trips for recreation, exercise, and sports accounted for 49% of bike trips in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, the share of all bike trips made for utilitarian reasons increased from 43% to 51%.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: Evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, American Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1, Vol 101, No S1

A study found large increases in bicycling ridership in New Orleans neighborhood after the installation of new bike lanes.
Parker, K., et. al., 2013 - Effect of Bike Lane Infrastructure Improvements on Ridership in One New Orleans Neighborhood, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45-1, 101-107

The percentage of Americans who mostly used a bicycle to get to work increased by 47% between 2000 and 2011.
Cox, W. 2012 - A summary of 2011 commuting data released today, newgeography.com, September 20, 2012

41% of all weekday bike trips in the D.C. area were commute or work-related, compared to only 17% in other urbanized areas of the U.S.
Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center, 2009 - Trends and Determinants of Cycling in the Washington, D.C., Region

People who are confident biking as adults are more likely to have biked frequently when they were young than those people who aren’t biking as adults.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)

About 56% of Portland residents are interested in cycling more, but concerned about their safety. Another 15% are cycling with confidence.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)


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Youth:

Bicycling is the second most popular outdoor activity among youth in America, and it is the outdoor activity they do with the second-highest frequency. Among adults, it is the fourth most popular and the second most frequent.
Outdoor Foundation, 2016 - Outdoor Foundation, 2016

47 percent of people ages 18-35 in Indianapolis, Nashville and Tampa "strongly agree" that they "would like to live in a place where I don't need to rely on a car." 30 percent somewhat agree. 9 percent strongly disagree.
Rockefeller Foundation, 2014 - Rockefeller Millennials Survey

Youths who cycle or walk to school are more likely to cycle or walk to other activities.
Sjolie, A., and F. Thuen, 2002 - School journeys and leisure activities in rural and urban adolescents in Norway, Health Promotion International, 17, 21-30

In large urban areas, 39% of land area is within 0.5 mile of a public school, and in small urban areas, 26.5% was within 0.5 mile of a public school.
Watson, M., and A. Dannenberg, 2008 - Investment in Safe Routes to School Projects: Public health benefits for the larger community

65.6 million people in urban areas could benefit from Safe Routes to School projects.
Watson, M., and A. Dannenberg, 2008 - Investment in Safe Routes to School Projects: Public health benefits for the larger community

Urban adolescents cycle or walk to regular activities more often than rural adolescents.
Sjolie, A., and F. Thuen, 2002 - School journeys and leisure activities in rural and urban adolescents in Norway, Health Promotion International, 17, 21-30

Children are more likely to bike or walk to school if they live less than 800 meters (0.5 mile) away.
Timperio, A., et al., 2006 - Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 45-51

Regular cycling or walking to school (10 trips/week) is associated with parents' travel mode to work.
Merom, D., et al., 2006 - Active commuting to school among NSW primary school children: Implications for public health, Health Place, 12, 678-87

Once children have to commute more than 0.75 km (0.47 mi) to school, the chance that they commute by biking or walking drops.
Merom, D., et al., 2006 - Active commuting to school among NSW primary school children: Implications for public health, Health Place, 12, 678-87

Boys who report having many peers to hang out with locally are more likely to cycle for transportation and recreation.
Carver, A., et al., 2005 - How do perceptions of local neighborhood relate to adolescents' walking and cycling, American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 139-47

In one generation, the percentage of children who walk or bike to school has dropped from 50% to 15%.
Safe Routes to School National Partnership, 2007 - Safe Routes to School: 2007 State of the States Report

35% of Dutch adolescents cycle to school on most days, and nearly 50% bike or walk.
Bere, E., et al., 2008 - Socio-demographic factors as correlates of active commuting to school in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Preventive Medicine

Young children (ages 5-14) with mothers who commute to work in the morning are less likely to bike or walk to school.
McDonald, N., 2008 - Household interactions and children's school travel: the effect of parental work patterns on walking and biking to school, Journal of Transport Geography, 16, 324-331

2.8% of US high school students bike to school at least 1 day per week. High schoolers who participate in physical education 1 to 4 days per week or never have an adult at home after school are more likely to bike or walk to school.
Evenson, K., et al., 2003 - Statewide prevalence and correlates of walking and bicycling to school, Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 887-892

The likelihood of children walking or biking to school is positively associated with shorter trips, male gender, higher land use mix, and presence of street trees.
Larsen, K., et al., 2008 - The influence of the physical environment and sociodemographic characteristics on children's mode of travel to and from school, American Journal of Public Health

In one study, over 90% of adolescents who perceived distance as a barrier to active commuting to school lived further than 2.5 miles from school.
Nelson, N., et al., 2008 - Active commuting to school: How far is too far?, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

Adolescents are more likely to bike or walk to school if they are males, Latinos, from lower-income families, public school students, from an urban areas, and living closer to school. Adolescents without an adult present after school and those whose parents know little about their whereabouts after school are also more likely to actively commute.
Babey, S., et al., 2008 - Sociodemographic, family, and environmental factors associated with active commuting to school among US adolescents, Journal of Public Health Policy, 30, S203–S220

In rural areas, adolescents with access to a safe park get more regular physical activity and are less likely to be inactive than those without access to a safe park.
Babey, S., et al., 2008 - Physical Activity Among Adolescents: When do parks matter?, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 35-38

12% of American children's trips to sports activities are made by bike.
McDonald, N., 2006 - in Tal, G., and S. Handy, Children's biking for non-school purposes: Getting to soccer games in Davis, CA, Transportation Research Record, 2074, 40-45

Students are less likely to bike or walk to school if they have to travel along and/or cross a road with busy traffic and no lights or crossing points.
Timpero, A., et al., 2006 - Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 45-51

Boys are more likely to bike or walk to school than girls.
McMillan, T., et al., 2006 - Johnny can walk to school-Can Jane? Examining sex differences in children's active travel to school, Children, Youth, and Environment, 16, 75-89

On average, boys cycle nearly 6 times as much as girls (138 miles/year versus 24 miles/year.)
National Children's Bureau - in "What's stopping teenage girls from riding bikes?" S. Phillips, Guardian.co.uk Bike Blog, November 17, 2009

More than 70 percent of all U.S. children age five to 14 ride a bicycle.
Mehan, T., et al., 2009 - "Bicycle related injuries among children and adolescents in the United States," Clinical Pediatrics, 48.2, 166-73

Parents are significantly more likely to let their children bike or walk to school when they believe that other adults in the neighborhood watch out for children.
McDonald, N., et al., 2010 - "Influence of the social environment on children's school travel," Preventive Medicine, 50, S65-S68

Three-quarters of parents who drive their children less than 2 miles to school say they do it for convenience and to save time.
McDonald, N., and A. Aalborg, 2009 - Why parents drive children to school: Implications for Safe Routes to School Programs, Journal of the American Planning Association, 75, 331-342

The share of U.S. children who bike or walk to school has remained stable at about 12 percent over the last 15 years.
Federal Highway Administration, 2010 - in "U.S. Travel Data Show Declind in Walking and Bicycling to School Has Stabilized," Safe Routes to School, 2010

Sixty percent of people in England who are able to ride a bike are deterred from cycling because they feel it's unsafe to cycle on roads. More than half said they would start riding or ride more often if there were more cycle paths.
Thornton, A., et al., 2010 - Climate Change and Transport Choices, Department of Transport

Five percent of American children ride a bicycle on any given day.
US Department of Transportation, 2001 - 2001 National Household Travel Survey

Girls and boys share similar attitudes about exercise and bicycling until age 14, at which point more girls fear injury and doubt their own athletic competence.
Goddard, T. 2013 - For girls on bikes, new research shows a turning point: age 14, BikePortland.org, 2013

The number of children riding bicycles declined by more than 20% between 2000 and 2010 (even as the number of children in this country increased by 3%), while the number of adults riding bicycles increased slightly.
Gluskin Townley Group, 2011 - The American Bicyclist Study

A study of Safe Routes to School programs in four states found that active travel to school increased by 37% after implementation of the programs.
Moudon, A. V.; Stewart, O. 2012 - Moving Forward: Safe Routes to School Progress in Five States, July 2012

People who are confident biking as adults are more likely to have biked frequently when they were young than those people who aren’t biking as adults.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)


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