Statistics Library / Facilities Statistics

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Bicycle facilities and safety:

75 percent of Portland and San Francisco residents who own bikes but ride infrequently are "very" or "extremely" concerned about safety while riding.
North research agency, 2013 - Selling Biking: A new report on the swing voters of the street

Protected bike lanes reduce bike-related intersection injuries by about 75 percent compared to comparable crossings without infrastructure.
Harris et al, 2013 - "Comparing the effects of infrastructure on bicycling injury at intersections and non-intersections using a case–crossover design." Injury Prevention

Because they shorten crossing distances, control turning conflicts and reduce traffic weaving, New York City's protected bike lanes reduced injury rates for people walking on their streets by 12 to 52 percent.
NYCDOT, 2013 - It turns out that protected bike lanes are fantastic for walking safety, too

Where protected lanes were installed in New York and Washington D.C., the number of bikes on sidewalks immediately fell by an average of 56 percent.
NYCDOT and DDOT, 2010-2014 - Tired of Cyclists Riding on the Sidewalk? Build More Bike Lanes

When Chicago added a protected lane and bike-specific traffic signals to Dearborn Street, stoplight compliance on bicycles immediately rose from 31 percent to 81 percent.
Chicago Department of Transportation, 2013 - City says Dearborn bike signals keeping cyclists in line

96 percent of people using protected bike lanes believe they increased safety on the street.
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

80 percent of people who live near a protected bike lane project believe it increased safety on the street.
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

The installation of many miles of new bike lanes in New York City did not lead to an increase in bike crashes, despite the increase in the number of cyclists.
Chen, L., et al., 2011 - Evaluating the safety effects of bicycle lanes in New York City, American Journal of Public Health, November 17, 2011

A review of 23 studies on bicycling injuries found that bike facilities (e.g. off-road paths, on-road marked bike lanes, and on-road bike routes) are where bicyclists are safest.
Reynolds, C., et al., 2009 - The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature, Environmental Health, 8:47

In a survey of bicycling visitors to North Carolina's northern Outer Banks region, nearly two-thirds indicated that they felt safer riding on bicycling facilities, more than 75% felt that additional bicycle facilities should be built, and nine out of ten strongly agreed that state and/or federal tax dollars should be used to build more bicycle facilities.
North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, 2004 - The Economic Impact of Investments in Bicycle Facilities: A Case Study of the North Carolina Northern Outer Banks

Major streets without bike facilities are where the most bike crashes happen, followed by minor streets without facilities, bike paths, and then bike lanes.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

Bicycle safety improvements attract proportionately more people to bicycling than automobile safety improvements (i.e. a 10% increase in safety results in a greater than 10% increase in the share of people bicycle commuting).
Noland, R., 1995 - Perceived risk and modal choice: Risk compensation in transportation systems, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 27, 503-521

A national survey found that bike lanes were available for less than 5% of bike trips.
National Complete Streets Coalition - "The Benefits of Complete Streets 6: Complete streets fight climate change!"

There is a direct correlation between feelings of personal safety and the number and percentage of weekly trips taken by bike.
Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009 - Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington, presented to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, September 8, 2009

A review of 23 studies on transportation infrastructure and bicyclist safety concluded that bicycle-specific facilities reduce crashes and injuries among cyclists.
Reynolds, C., et al., 2009 - The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature, Environmental Health, 8, 47

When the city of Seattle removed car lanes and added bike lanes to its Stone Way North street, the volume of cyclists increased 25%, motor traffic on adjacent streets declined 12-34%, speeding decreased 80%, and collisions dropped 14%.
City of Seattle Department of Transportation - Stone Way N Rechannelization: Before and After Study

A study found that separated bike paths have better air quality than traditional bike lanes.
Kendrick, C., et al., 2010 in Maus, J., 2010 - The impact of bicycle characteristics on bicyclists exposure to traffic-related particulate matter, in press, in "Study: Separated bikeways mean better air quality for bikers, walkers," BikePortland.o

A study found that bicycling on separated facilities like cycle tracks is safer than riding on streets without bicycle facilities. Cyclists were also 2.5 times more likely to ride on the cycle tracks than on the streets.
Lusk, A., et al., 2010 - Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street, Injury Prevention, December 1, 2010

A review of 23 studies on bicycling injuries found that bike facilities (e.g. off-road paths, on-road marked bike lanes, and on-road bike routes) are where bicyclists are safest.
Reynolds, C., et al., 2009 - The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature, Environmental Health, 8:47

When protected bike lanes are installed in New York City, injury crashes for all road users (drivers, pedestrians, and cyclists) typically drop by 40% and by more than 50% in some locations.
Wolfson, H., 2011 - Memorandum on Bike Lanes, City of New York, Office of the Mayor, 21 March 2011

Cities with high bicycling rates tend to have lower crash rates for all road users.
Marshall, W., and N. Garrick, 2011 - Evidence on why bike-friendly cities are safer for all road users, Environmental Practice, 13, 1

In Salt Lake City, bicycling increased 27 percent from 2010 to 2011, thanks in part to a 50-mile bikeway expansion.
Office of the Mayor, Salt Lake City, 2011 - "Second Annual Bike Count Shows Big Jump in Cyclists," Office of the Mayor, 1 November 2011

After New York City installed a protected bike lane on Columbus Avenue, bicycling increased 56 percent on weekdays, crashes decreased 34 percent, speeding decreased, sidewalk riding decreased, traffic flow remained similar, and commercial loading hours/space increased 475 percent.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011 - Columbus Avenue parking-protected bicycle path preliminary assessment

The safest bicycle routes in Vancouver, BC, and Toronto were found to be cycletracks on major streets, local streets with traffic diversion, and off-street bike paths.
Teschke, K. et al., 2012 - Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists, American Journal of Public Health, Volume 102

One year after the installation of a protected bike lane in downtown Long Beach, a city survey found an increase in walking and bicycling traffic and a decrease in the number of bicycle and car crashes.
City of Long Beach 2013 - Broadway and Third Street Protected Bikeway Study

People wait for red lights 94% of the time when bicycling in Portland, according to a study of more than 2,000 intersection videos.
Thompson, S. R., 2013 - 94% of bike riders wait a red lights, study finds; BikePortland.org, June 25, 2013

Red light compliance on a protected bike lane in Chicago was observed to be 81% in 2013, compared to 31% before the protected lane was installed.
City says Dearborn bike signals keeping cyclists in line, Chicago Tribune, June 10, 2013

Between 36% and 77% of cars are speeding on non-freeway streets, according to federal research.
Transportation Research Board, Texas Transportation Institute, 2003 - Design Speed, Operating Speed and Posted Speed Practices, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 2003

Cities around the U.S. have found that protected bike lanes increase bicycle ridership, reduce motor vehicle speeding, reduce crashes and improve people’s feelings of safety on those streets.
Chicago Department of Transportation, July 2012 - Protected Bike Lanes Fact Sheet

In multiple studies of rail-to-trail conversions, crime and other nuisances decreased or remained the same after the trail was built.
Rails to Trails Conservancy, 1998 - Rail-Trails and Safe Communities: The Experience on 372 Trails

In a survey of Portland residents, those people who are interested in cycling but concerned about their safety reported that they would be much more comfortable in a physically separated bike lane than in a painted bike lane.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)

After the installation of a protected bike lane in New York City, injuries to all street users decreased by 58% and retail sales increased by as much as 49% (compared to a 3% increase in sales citywide).
Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets, 2012

Sixty percent of people in England who are able to ride a bike are deterred from cycling because they feel it's unsafe to cycle on roads. More than half said they would start riding or ride more often if there were more cycle paths.
Thornton, A., et al., 2010 - Climate Change and Transport Choices, Department of Transport

A survey of Australian adults found that three in five have access to a bike, but many don't ride at all or as much as they want to due to road and safety issues. Respondents said that separated bike paths would encourage them to start riding at all or more often.
Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011 - Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings

Bicycling in New York City increased 8% between 2010 and 2011, 102% since 2007, and 289% compared to 2001. During the same time, safety increased for all road users.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011 - "NYC DOT Announces Commuter Biking has Doubled in the Last Four Years..."

Between 2003 and 2007, bike commuting in Minneapolis increased 100%. Since 2000, bike crashes have declined 20% on average every year.
Bike Walk Twin Cities in Bike.Walk.Move.org, 2011 - Infographic highlights biking, walking in Twin Cities, November 1, 2011

A study of 690 bicycling injuries in Canada showed that cycle tracks had the lowest risks.
Teschke, K., et. al., 2012 - Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study, American Journal of Public Health

The safest bicycle routes in Vancouver, BC, and Toronto were found to be cycletracks on major streets, local streets with traffic diversion, and off-street bike paths.
Teschke, K. et al., 2012 - Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists, American Journal of Public Health, Volume 102

One year after the installation of a protected bike lane in downtown Long Beach, a city survey found an increase in walking and bicycling traffic and a decrease in the number of bicycle and car crashes.
City of Long Beach 2013 - Broadway and Third Street Protected Bikeway Study

People wait for red lights 94% of the time when bicycling in Portland, according to a study of more than 2,000 intersection videos.
Thompson, S. R., 2013 - 94% of bike riders wait a red lights, study finds; BikePortland.org, June 25, 2013

Red light compliance on a protected bike lane in Chicago was observed to be 81% in 2013, compared to 31% before the protected lane was installed.
City says Dearborn bike signals keeping cyclists in line, Chicago Tribune, June 10, 2013

Between 36% and 77% of cars are speeding on non-freeway streets, according to federal research.
Transportation Research Board, Texas Transportation Institute, 2003 - Design Speed, Operating Speed and Posted Speed Practices, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, 2003

Cities around the U.S. have found that protected bike lanes increase bicycle ridership, reduce motor vehicle speeding, reduce crashes and improve people’s feelings of safety on those streets.
Chicago Department of Transportation, July 2012 - Protected Bike Lanes Fact Sheet

In multiple studies of rail-to-trail conversions, crime and other nuisances decreased or remained the same after the trail was built.
Rails to Trails Conservancy, 1998 - Rail-Trails and Safe Communities: The Experience on 372 Trails

In a survey of Portland residents, those people who are interested in cycling but concerned about their safety reported that they would be much more comfortable in a physically separated bike lane than in a painted bike lane.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)


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Facilities and kids:

Kids who bike or walk to recreation sites (parks, playgrounds, etc.) use them more often. The safer it is to bike or walk to play sites, the more likely it is that kids will bike or walk there.
Grow, H., et al., 2008 - Where are youth active? Roles of proximity, active transport, and built environment, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40, 2071-2079

In a California study, children who passed by completed Safe Routes to School projects were more likely to show increases in active travel to school compared to children who didn't pass projects (15% vs 4%).
Boarnet, M, et al., 2005 - Evaluation of the California Safe Routes to School legislation: urban form changes and children's active transportation to school, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28, 134-40

Children are less likely to bike or walk to school when there is a busy road barrier en route to school, or when parents believe that there are no lights or crossings for their child to use.
Timperio, A., et al., 2006 - Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 45-51

An evaluation of California's Safe Routes to School projects found that five of 10 selected projects were successful at increasing perceived safety, safety-related behaviors, and the number of children bicycling and walking to school.
Boarnet, M, et al., 2005 - California's Safe Routes to School program: Impacts on walking, bicycling, and pedestrian safety, Journal of the American Planning Association, 71, 301-317

Over the width of one traffic lane, cycling and walking can move five to ten times more people than driving.
Ekoster, J., et al., 1999 - in "Implementing Complete Streets I: Costs of complete streets"

High school girls who have numerous parks, schools, and other physical activity facilities in their neighborhood are significantly more likely to report getting vigorous physical activity than those who don't have any.
Pate, R., et al., 2008 - Physical Activity and Neighborhood Resources in High School Girls, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 413-419

Pre-adolescent girls who live near multi-use trails get 5% more physical activity and have 1.4% lower body mass indexes than those who don't live near a trail.
Evenson, K., 2007 - "Girls' perception of neighborhood factors on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and BMI," Obesity, 15, 430-45

In 2009, 88 percent of U.S. children's bike-related deaths occurred in the street, up from 38 percent in 1990 and 47 percent in 2005.
Mehan, T., et al., 2009 - "Bicycle related injuries among children and adolescents in the United States," Clinical Pediatrics, 48.2, 166-73

Children are more likely to bike or walk to school when there are recreational facilities and bike paths nearby.
Ziviani, P., et al., 2009 - "Environmental correlates of children's active transportation: a systematic literature review," Health & Place, 15, 827-40

Young teens who live in neighborhoods where they can safely bike and walk to school and other destinations are significantly less likely to be obese.
Priedt, R., 2010 - "Neighborhood planning could help more kids avoid obesity," HealthDay News, 3 June 2010

A study of Safe Routes to School programs in four states found that active travel to school increased by 37% after implementation of the programs.
Moudon, A. V.; Stewart, O. 2012 - Moving Forward: Safe Routes to School Progress in Five States, July 2012


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If you build it, they will come:

On Washington DC's first protected bike lanes, bike traffic has been growing seven times faster than the citywide rate.
District Department of Transportation, 2009-2013 - How high can they go? DC bike counts show continuing surge in protected lane use

In Seville, an 80-mile network of protected bike lanes boosted biking from 0.6 percent to 7 percent of trips in six years.
London Cycling Campaign, 2012 - "Cycling increased tenfold in Seville after construction of miles of bike tracks."

In Hangzhou, China, where 84 percent of main and secondary roads separate bikes from cars, 44 percent of middle school parents who own cars (and 62 percent of those who don't) ride a bike at least once a week.
Lusk et al, 2014 - "Gender and used/preferred differences of bicycle routes, parking, intersection signals, and bicycle type: Professional middle class preferences in Hangzhou, China." Journal of Transport & Health.

In the two U.S. cities that first started building modern protected bike lanes, New York and Washington D.C., bike commuting doubled from 2008 to 2013.
US Census - NYC and DC, protected lane pioneers, just doubled biking rates in 4 years

62 percent of people who live near protected lane projects "would be more likely to ride a bicycle if motor vehicles and bicycles were physically separated by a barrier."
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

The average protected bike lane sees bike counts increase 75 percent in its first year alone.
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

Intersections in Montreal with protected bike lanes saw 61 percent more bike traffic than comparable intersections with no bike infrastructure.
The Journal of Transport and Land Use, 2013 - Spatial modeling of bicycling activity at signalized intersections

A survey of San Francisco's Polk Street found that only 15 percent of people on the street arrived by car.
SF Municipal Transportation Agency, 2013

On D.C.'s Pennsylvania Avenue protected bike lane, bicycle volumes increased 200 percent after the facilities were installed.
District Department of Transportation, 2012 - District Department of Transportation Bicycle Facility Evaluation

NYC's Prospect Park West protected bike lane saw a 190 percent increase in weekday ridership, with 32 percent of those biking under age 12.
NYC DOT, 2012 - Prospect Park West: Traffic Calming & Bicycle Path

After a protected bike lane was installed on Chicago's Kinzie Street: Bicycle ridership on increased 55 percent, according to morning rush hour counts; Forty-one percent of respondents changed their usual route to take advantage of the new lane; Bicyclists accounted for a majority of all eastbound traffic (53 percent) and more than one third (34 percent) of total street traffic during a CDOT traffic count conducted during morning rush hour in August 2011.
Chicago DOT, 2011 - Initial Findings: Kinzie Street Protected Bike Lane

After buffered bike lanes were installed on Philadelphia's Spruce and Pine streets, bike traffic increased 95 percent and the number of people biking on the sidewalks fell 22 percent.
Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2009 - "Bicycle usage up 95% on Spruce and Pine bike lanes"

From 2006-2011, bicycling in San Francisco increased 71 percent. From 2010-2011, it increased 7 percent, making up 3.5 percent of all trips in the city. The greatest growth in bicycling came on Market Street, which has protected bike lanes. On Market Street, bicycling increased 115 percent from 2006, and 43 percent from 2010.
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2012 - 2011 Bicycle Count Report

A poll of New York City residents found that 60 percent support bike lanes, 64 percent see more New Yorkers biking in the next five years, and 76 percent want to increase or maintain the number of bike lanes.
Lisberg, A., 2012 - Bike lanes will be old news for new mayor, survey says," City & State, 13 March 2012

A survey of Toronto residents found that 72 percent support protected bike lanes.
Rider, D., 2011 - "65% of Torontonians say no to road tolls; 72% want bike lanes," Thestar.com, 3 June 2011

A survey of Portland, Oregon, protected bike lane users found that 70 percent of respondents thought the lane made cycling safer and easier. Motorists generally thought it didn't make driving any less convenient or slower. Only three percent of cyclists didn't use the protected lane, compared to before it was installed, when 12 percent of riders rode in the street instead of in the bike lane.
Monsere, C., et al., 2011 - Evaluation of Innovative Bicycle Facilities: SW Broadway Cycle Track & SW Stark/Oak Street Buffered Bike Lanes

Since the 1990s the city of Cambridge, Mass., has installed 37 miles of bike lanes and paths. From 2002-2006, the number of cyclists increased 70%.
City of Cambridge - in "Menino pedals for cycle-friendly city: Boston to unveil its first dedicated bike lanes," May 13, 2008, M. Levinson, The Boston Globe

Bicycles represent 13% of all vehicles on four of Portland's bicycle-friendly Willamette River bridges.
City of Portland Office of Transportation, 2008 - Portland Bicycle Counts 2008

Since 2007, 140 miles of new bicycle routes have been added to New York City's on-street bicycle network. In that time, commuter cycling grew 35%.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2008 - Bicycle Screenline Count

One year after a bike path in Los Angeles was built user traffic increased 38%.
Cohen, D., et al., 2008 - Impact of a new bicycle path on physical activity, Preventive Medicine, 46, 80-81

Bicycle facilities are most effective in highly-accessible urban areas where a large number of commute trips can take place across short distances.
Douma and Cleaveland, 2008 - The impact of bicycle facilities on commute mode share, Minnesota Department of Transportation research report 2008-33

Half of 700 New York City office workers living within 10 miles of their job said they would bike to work if provided with safe lanes, secure parking, and wash-up facilities.
Pucher, J. et al., 1999 - Bicycling renaissance in North America?: Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 33, 625-54

People are less likely to bicycle where pavement quality is poor.
Sener et al., 2008 - An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

People are more likely to bike commute if they have secure parking and showers at their work.
Sener et al., 2008 - An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

The provision of traffic free bike routes could produce a 17 to 101% increase in cycling.
Parkin, J., et al., 2008 - Estimation of the determinants of bicycle mode share for the journey to work using census data, 35, 93-109

After a bike and pedestrian lane was installed on a South Carolina bridge, 67% of users indicated that their activity levels had increased since the opening of the lane.
McCarthy, D., 2009 - "Wonder’s Way Bike Pedestrian Pathway on the Arthur Ravenel, Jr. Bridge: A Successful Model for Facilitating Active Living in Lowcountry South Carolina"

Two years after bike lines were designated, bike traffic on Toronto streets increased 23% on average.
Pucher, J. et al., 1999 - Bicycling renaissance in North America?: Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 33, 625-54

Land use plans that include non-automobile transportation improvements and more comprehensive policies to guide development are positively associated with both transportation- and leisure-related physical activity.
Aytu, S., et al., 2008 - The sociodemographics of land use planning: relationships to physical activity, accessibility, and equity, Health & Place, 14, 367-85

Living closer to a rail-trail is positively associated with active transportation.
Troped, P., et al., 2003 - Correlates of recreational and transportation physical activity among adults in a New England community, Preventive Medicine, 37, 304-10

From 1992-2005 Portland, Ore., increased its bikeway network by 215%, and during that period bicycle commuting doubled.
Birk, M., and R. Geller, 2005 - Bridging the gaps: How the quality and quantity of a connected bikeway network correlates with increasing bicycle use, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2006 Paper #06-0667

The University of Colorado has nearly three times as many bike parking spaces (9,433) as car parking spaces (3,200) for students. In early 2009, nearly 75 percent of the bike parking spaces were full.
Asmar, M., 2009 - "CU, Community Cycles team up for used bike sale," Daily Camera Online, August 25, 2009

Only 21 percent of employees work within three miles of a downtown, while 45 percent work more than 10 miles away from a city center. Between 1998 and 2006, nearly all metro areas saw a decrease in the share of jobs located within three miles of downtown, even though the number of jobs in all metros rose during that period.
Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program, 2009 - “Job Sprawl” Undermines Long-Term Regional, National Prosperity

A study of trail users in rural West Virginia found that 98% of trail users on two new trails reported that their activity levels had increased since beginning to use the new trails.
Gordon, P., et al., 2004 - in McCarthy, D., 2009, "Wonder’s Way Bike Pedestrian Pathway on the Arthur Ravenel, Jr. Bridge: A Successful Model for Facilitating Active Living in Lowcountry South Carolina"

People living within a half-mile of a bike path are at least 20% more likely to bicycle at least once a week, compared to people living slightly farther away from the path.
Vernez-Moudon, et al., 2005 - in Pucher, J., et al., 2009, "Inrastructure, Programs and Policies to Increase Bicycling"

Among the 50 largest US metropolitan areas, the five that spend the most on bicycle and pedestrian facilities invested seven times as much per capita ($1.54) as the five lowest-spending metro areas ($0.21).
McCann, B., and S. Handy, 2009 - The Regional Response to Federal Funding for Bicycle and Pedestrian Projects, UC Davis Sustainable Transportation Center, August 2009

People who live near multi-use trails are 50% more likely to meet physical activity guidelines and 73-80% more likely to bicycle.
Huston et al., Pierce et al., and Moudon et al. - in "Active Transportation: Making the Link from Transportation to Physical Activity and Obesity," Active Living Research research brief, Summer, 2009

One study of cities across the US estimated that for every 1% increase in the length of on-street bicycle lanes, there is a 0.31% increase in bicycle commuters.
Dill, J., and T. Carr, 2003 - "Bicycling commuting and facilities in major U.S. cities: If you build them, commuters will use them," Transportation Research Record, 1828, 116-123

Multi-use trails have been shown to be particularly beneficial in promoting physical activity among women and people in lower-income areas.
Brownson, R., et al., 2000 - "Promoting physical activity in rural communities: Walking trails access, use, and effects," American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18, 235-241

A survey of college students revealed that both non-bicycle commuters and bike commuters say that bicycle lanes, trails, and paths would encourage them to ride a bike (or ride more often) to campus.
Gulash, A., and K. Clifton, 2009 - The influence of individual perceptions and bicycle infrastructure on the decision to bike, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2009, Paper #09-3349

Areas near new bicycle facilities showed considerably more of an increase in bicycle commuting than areas farther away.
Krizek, K., et al., 2009 - Analyzing the effect of bicycle facilities on commute mode share over time, Journal of Urban Planing and Development, 135, 66-73

A study of Portland, OR businesses with nearby bike corrals found that the top five perceived benefits were: 86% Help to promote sustainability; 84% Enhance the street and neighborhood identity; 77% Increase transportation options for employees and patrons; 67% Increase foot and bike traffic; 53% Increase the visibility of businesses from the street. Business owners with nearby bike corrals also reported that one-quarter of their customers are bicyclists. More than two-thirds said this share has been increasing more rapidly over time.
Meisel, D., 2010 - Bike Corrals: Local Business Impacts, Benefits, and Attitudes

In San Jose, California, bicycling to work increased 200% between 2006 and 2008. A study of the city's bike trail system found that: Use has increased by double-digits every year from 2006 to 2008 More than 50% of trail users are commuting to and from work Trail users report a desire to bike more with further trail development
Zsutty, Y., 2010 - "The trail down the street: San Jose plans for trails within three miles of all residents," RTC TrailBlog

After two streets in Minneapolis were converted to be more bicycle friendly, bike traffic increased 43%, total vehicle crashes decreased, traffic efficiency was maintained, and parking revenues remained consistent.
City of Minneapolis, 2010 - Hennepin and 1st avenues two-way conversion leads to fewer crashes, better access

Fifty-seven percent of Americans say the design of neighborhood streets is very important in helping them get physical activity. Americans over 65, African-Americans, and Hispanics were more likely than most to say their neighborhood street environment is important.
Carlson, S., et al., 2011 - Public Support for Street-Scale Urban Design Practices and Policies to Increase Physical Activity, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(Suppl 1), S125-S13

In Washington, DC, the highest rates of bike commuting tend to be correlated with those neighborhoods where the city has invested in bike facilities.
Pitingolo, R., 2011 - "DC cycling concentrated in Northwest and Capitol Hill," Greater Greater Washington, 1 March 2011

Americans with nearby biking routes are more likely to participate in outdoor activities than those who don't have nearby biking routes (58% versus 47%).
Outdoor Industry Association, 2011 - Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

Bicycling in Minneapolis, Minnesota increased 47% from 2007-2011. From 2010-2011, the city expanded its on-street bikeway network by 75%.
City of Minneapolis Public Works Department, 2012 - 2011 City of Minneapolis Bicycling Account

Cities with more bike paths and lanes have significantly higher bike commuting rates.
Buehler, R., and J. Pucher, 2012 - Cycling to work in 90 large American cities: new evidence on the role of bike paths and lanes, Transportation, 39, 409-432

After New York City installed a protected bike lane on Columbus Avenue, bicycling increased 56 percent on weekdays, crashes decreased 34 percent, speeding decreased, sidewalk riding decreased, traffic flow remained similar, and commercial loading hours/space increased 475 percent.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011 - Columbus Avenue parking-protected bicycle path preliminary assessment

New York City has found that the rate of expansion of their bicycle network corresponds to the rate of growth in cycling the following year.
New York City DOT 2013 - Cycling in the City: An Update on NYC Cycling Counts

One year after the installation of a protected bike lane in downtown Long Beach, a city survey found an increase in walking and bicycling traffic and a decrease in the number of bicycle and car crashes.
City of Long Beach 2013 - Broadway and Third Street Protected Bikeway Study

Red light compliance on a protected bike lane in Chicago was observed to be 81% in 2013, compared to 31% before the protected lane was installed.
City says Dearborn bike signals keeping cyclists in line, Chicago Tribune, June 10, 2013

Cities around the U.S. have found that protected bike lanes increase bicycle ridership, reduce motor vehicle speeding, reduce crashes and improve people’s feelings of safety on those streets.
Chicago Department of Transportation, July 2012 - Protected Bike Lanes Fact Sheet

A report of the four Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program communities found: 16 million miles were bicycled or walked that would have otherwise been driven in 2012; The number of bicyclists increased 49 percent on average between 2007 and 2010; The share of trips taken by bicycle increased 36 percent; Driving mode share decreased 3 percent; Additional biking and walking trips saved the communities $6.9 million by reducing the economic cost of mortality
Federal Highway Administration, 2012 - Report to the U.S. Congress on the outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807

In 2012, less than 2% of federal transportation funding went to sidewalks, bike lanes, and bike paths. Yet, a Princeton Survey found strong bipartisan support (83%) for maintaining or increasing funding.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

More than one third of people surveyed on Illinois trails spent money in local restaurants or bars as part of their trip, and just under one third reported using the trail frequently, 21 or more times in the past year.
Trails for Illinois, 2013 - Making Trails Count.

The provision of bike parking and bike corrals near businesses were found to be significant predictors of bike mode share among customers of those businesses.
Clifton, K. 2013 - Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium

In San Jose, California, bicycling to work increased 200% between 2006 and 2008. A study of the city's bike trail system found that: Use has increased by double-digits every year from 2006 to 2008 More than 50% of trail users are commuting to and from work Trail users report a desire to bike more with further trail development
Zsutty, Y., 2010 - "The trail down the street: San Jose plans for trails within three miles of all residents," RTC TrailBlog

After buffered bike lanes were installed on Philadelphia's Spruce and Pine streets, bike traffic increased 95% and the number of bicyclists riding on the sidewalks decreased by up to 75%
Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2010 - "Bicycle usage up 95% on Spruce and Pine bike lanes," 10 December 2009

There is little correlation between population density and cycling rate.
Hembrow, D., 2011 - "Population density vs. cycling rate for a range of cities," A View from the Cycle Path, 28 February 2011

Bicycling is growing the fastest in large cities like Chicago, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco, and Portland, OR—at least doubling since 1990. These cities have seen a boom in bicycling because they have consciously worked to grow bicycling. Cities, like Portland, that have implemented a comprehensive range of efforts, including infrastructure, programs, and policies to promote cycling are seeing the best results; in Portland, cycling levels grew six-fold.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

In large US cities where bicycling is growing, bicycling growth is highly concentrated in central cities, but it is still very low in most suburbs.
Pucher, J., et al., 2011 - Bicycling renaissance in North America? An update and re-appraisal of cycling trends and policies, Transportation Research A, 45, in press

Bicycling in New York City increased 8% between 2010 and 2011, 102% since 2007, and 289% compared to 2001. During the same time, safety increased for all road users.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011 - "NYC DOT Announces Commuter Biking has Doubled in the Last Four Years..."

After the BIXI bike sharing system was implemented in Montreal, individuals who lived within 1km of a station were more likely to cycle for transportation.
Fuller, D., et al., 2011 - Evaluating the impact of implementing a public bike share program on utilitarian cycling: The case of BIXI in Montreal, Canada, 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference presentation abstract

Americans with nearby biking routes are more likely to participate in outdoor activities than those who don't have nearby biking routes (58% versus 47%).
Outdoor Industry Association, 2011 - Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

Bicycling in Minneapolis, Minnesota increased 47% from 2007-2011. From 2010-2011, the city expanded its on-street bikeway network by 75%.
City of Minneapolis Public Works Department, 2012 - 2011 City of Minneapolis Bicycling Account

Cities with more bike paths and lanes have significantly higher bike commuting rates.
Buehler, R., and J. Pucher, 2012 - Cycling to work in 90 large American cities: new evidence on the role of bike paths and lanes, Transportation, 39, 409-432

From 2006-2011, bicycling in San Francisco increased 71 percent. From 2010-2011, it increased 7 percent, making up 3.5 % of all trips in the city. The greatest growth in bicycling came on Market Street, which has green, protected bikeways. On Market Street, bicycling increased 115% from 2006, and 43% from 2010.
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2012 - 2011 Bicycle Count Report

A study found large increases in bicycling ridership in New Orleans neighborhood after the installation of new bike lanes.
Parker, K., et. al., 2013 - Effect of Bike Lane Infrastructure Improvements on Ridership in One New Orleans Neighborhood, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45-1, 101-107

Due to recent increases in local bicycling infrastructure, the Twin Cities has one of the nation's highest rates of women bicyclists, between 37-45%.
Reeves, H. 2012 - "Spokes & soles // As infrastructure improves, more Twin Cities women bike," Southwest Journal, 11 June 2012

In 2012, less than 2% of federal transportation funding went to sidewalks, bike lanes, and bike paths. Yet, a Princeton Survey found strong bipartisan support (83%) for maintaining or increasing funding.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

New York City has found that the rate of expansion of their bicycle network corresponds to the rate of growth in cycling the following year.
New York City DOT 2013 - Cycling in the City: An Update on NYC Cycling Counts

One year after the installation of a protected bike lane in downtown Long Beach, a city survey found an increase in walking and bicycling traffic and a decrease in the number of bicycle and car crashes.
City of Long Beach 2013 - Broadway and Third Street Protected Bikeway Study

Red light compliance on a protected bike lane in Chicago was observed to be 81% in 2013, compared to 31% before the protected lane was installed.
City says Dearborn bike signals keeping cyclists in line, Chicago Tribune, June 10, 2013

Cities around the U.S. have found that protected bike lanes increase bicycle ridership, reduce motor vehicle speeding, reduce crashes and improve people’s feelings of safety on those streets.
Chicago Department of Transportation, July 2012 - Protected Bike Lanes Fact Sheet

Employees are less likely to cycle to work if their employer provides free car parking, and more likely to cycle to work if their employer provides bike parking and showers.
Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center, 2009 - Trends and Determinants of Cycling in the Washington, D.C., Region


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What do people want?:

47 percent of people ages 18-35 in Indianapolis, Nashville and Tampa "strongly agree" that they "would like to live in a place where I don't need to rely on a car." 30 percent somewhat agree. 9 percent strongly disagree.
Rockefeller Foundation, 2014 - Rockefeller Millennials Survey

75 percent of people who live near a protected bike lane project say they support more in other locations. For those aged 18-34, it's 85 percent; for those aged 18-24, 97 percent.
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

10 percent of people who live near a protected bike lane project give a perfect comfort rating to a conventional painted bike lane. 22 percent give a perfect rating to a bike lane buffered by paint. 70 give a perfect comfort rating to a bike lane protected by planters.
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

62 percent of people who live near protected lane projects "would be more likely to ride a bicycle if motor vehicles and bicycles were physically separated by a barrier."
Monsere, C., et al., 2014 - Lessons from the Green Lanes (National Institute for Transportation and Communities)

Eighty-three percent of surveyed residents around the 15th Street protected bike lane in Washington, D.C. say the lane is a valuable neighborhood asset.
District Department of Transportation, 2012 - District Department of Transportation Bicycle Facility Evaluation

Nearly 3 in 4 residents surveyed near Washington D.C.'s Pennsylvania Ave. protected bike lane support the lanes and believe them to be a valuable asset to the neighborhood.
District Department of Transportation, 2012 - District Department of Transportation Bicycle Facility Evaluation

A poll of New York City residents found that 60 percent support bike lanes, 64 percent see more New Yorkers biking in the next five years, and 76 percent want to increase or maintain the number of bike lanes.
Lisberg, A., 2012 - Bike lanes will be old news for new mayor, survey says," City & State, 13 March 2012

Nearly two-thirds (65%) of Americans who don't bicycle say they would like to ride more often.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2008. - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior

Children who ride a bike two or more times a week are less likely to be overweight.
Dudas, R., and M. Crocetti, 2008 - Association of bicycling and childhood overweight status, Ambulatory Pediatrics, 8, 392-395

In a summer 2008 AARP survey, 15% of older adults said they had ridden a bicycle more frequently since gas prices had risen. Yet only 4 in 10 said they thought their neighborhood had adequate bicycle accommodations.
Skufca, L., 2008 - Is the cost of gas leading Americans to use alternative transportation?, AARP

Bicycle commuters would be willing to increase their commute time by 75%, a value of $6.52 per round-trip, to have an on-street bicycle lane.
Krizek, K., 2006 - Two approaches to valuing some of bicycle facilities' presumed benefits, Journal of the American Planning Association, 72, 309-19

Individuals who have not bicycled in the past 30 days are less satisfied with the state of bicycle facilities than those who have.
National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes and Behaviors Report, 2002 - in Sener et al., 2008, An analysis of bicyclists and bicycling characteristics: Who, why, and how much are they bicycling?

Half of 700 New York City office workers living within 10 miles of their job said they would bike to work if provided with safe lanes, secure parking, and wash-up facilities.
Pucher, J. et al., 1999 - Bicycling renaissance in North America?: Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 33, 625-54

Residents who choose to live in a city because of a supportive bicycling environment are 1.69 times as likely to bicycle than residents who do not.
Xing, Y., et al., 2008 - Factors associated with bicycle ownership and use: A study of 6 small U.S. cities, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2007, Paper #08-1273

According to a survey of Portland, OR, residents, the top three most desired next steps for the city include "increase and improve bike lanes" and "increase car-free streets & zones".
City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability, 2009 - Central Portland Plan Community Survey Results Summary Report

Bicyclists travel 67% longer on average to include a trail facility on their route.
Krizek, K., et al., 2007 - A detailed analysis of how an urban trail system affects cyclists' travel, Transportation, 34, 611-24

Residents who choose to live in a city because of a supportive bicycling environment are 1.69 times as likely to bicycle than residents who do not.
Xing, Y., et al., 2008 - Factors associated with bicycle ownership and use: A study of 6 small U.S. cities, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2007, Paper #08-1273

According to a government survey, almost half (47%) of Americans 16 and older say they would like to see more bike paths, lanes, and trails in their community.
Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008 - National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Only 15% of bike commuters say their employers provide bike facilities.
Moritz, W., 1997 - Survey of North American bicycle commuters: Design and aggregate results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1578, 91-101

More than 100 transit systems in the US carry passengers' bicycles on buses and trains.
Schneider, R. - in "The Benefits of Complete Streets 5: Complete streets make for a good ride!"

As of 2004, 86% of local governments had introduced or were considering initiatives linking bicycling, walking, community design, and health.
International City County Management Association, 2004 - in McCann, B., 2006, Making Physical Activity Research Relevant to Policy Makers, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3, Suppl 1, S267-S272

In a study of a Toronto neighborhood's stores, patrons said they would prefer a bike lane to widened sidewalks at a ratio of almost four to one.
The Clean Air Partnership, 2009 - Bike Lanes, On-Street Parking and Business: A study of Bloor Street in Toronto's Annex Neighbourhood

Interventions to reduce traffic speed and volume are likely to promote bicycling.
Jacobson, P., et al., 2009 - "Who owns the roads? How motorised traffic discourages walking and biking," Injury Prevention, 15, 369-373

An engineering firm found that only 7 percent of Ashland, OR residents are comfortable with the city's bicycle infrastructure.
Kittelson & Associates, 2010, in Associated Press, 2010 - "Study says Ashland is full of potential bike commuters," OregonLive.com, 9 November 2010

A study of cyclists' travel habits found that bike trips were 360 meters longer than the shortest possible route, while car trips were 540 meters longer. Cyclists chose to detour from the shortest possible route to routes with more bicycle facilities, local roads, and off-street paths.
Winters, M., et al., 2011 - How far out of the way will we travel?: Built environment influences on route selection for bicycle and car travel, 2190/2010, 1-10


Fifty-four percent of New York City voters say that bike lanes are good "because it's greener and healthier for people to ride their bicycles."
Wolfson, H., 2011 - Memorandum on Bike Lanes, City of New York, Office of the Mayor, 21 March 2011

Sixty-six percent of new bike lanes installed in New York City have no effects on parking or on the number of moving lanes.
Wolfson, H., 2011 - Memorandum on Bike Lanes, City of New York, Office of the Mayor, 21 March 2011

Forty-five percent of Americans say their communities lack enough places to bike.
Belden Russonello and Stewart, 2011 - The 2011 Community Preference Survey: What Americans are looking for when deciding where to live, conducted for the National Association of Realtors, March 2011

A survey of Toronto residents found that 72% support separated bike lanes.
Rider, D., 2011 - "65% of Torontonians say no to road tolls; 72% want bike lanes," Thestar.com, 3 June 2011

A survey of U.S. mayors found that 60% of mayors believe a lack of funding for bicycle and pedestrian projects is a key issue.
The United States Conference of Mayors, 2011 - Metropolitan Transportation Infrastructure Survey

Seventy percent of Americans say that having bike lanes or paths in their community is important to them.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2010 - 2009 Omnibus Household Survey, U.S. Department of Transportation, in Transportation Statistics Annual Report 2010, 7

In New York City, females are twice as likely to use greenway paths than to use on-street bike lanes.
New York City Department of Planning, 2009 - Bike Facilities Profile 2009

An October 2011 survey of NYC residents found that 72% support a bike share system in the city and 58% support the expansion of bike lanes in the city. However, only 46% want bike lanes in their neighborhood (48% do not).
Quinnipiac University, 2011 - New Yorkers back bike rental idea 3-1, Quinnipiac University poll finds; Voters back mayor on smoking, salt, calorie count, October 20, 2011

Eighty-four percent of Americans who do and 71% who don't participate in outdoor activities say that biking/walking trails in their neighborhood are important to them.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2011 - Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

A poll of New York City residents shortly after the launch of bike sharing found that the program was broadly popular.
Poll: Bike Sharing Widely Popular After First Month, WNYC.org, June 27, 2013

Homeowners are willing to pay a $9,000 premium to live within 1,000 feet of the Little Miami Scenic Trail.
vom Hofe, R., and Parent, O., in University of Cincinnati, 2011 - "New Research Finds that Homeowners and City Planners Should 'Hit the Trail' When Considering Property Values"

A national poll found that the majority of Americans overwhelming agree that Congress should maintain or increase funding for sidewalks and bike lanes.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

In 2012, less than 2% of federal transportation funding went to sidewalks, bike lanes, and bike paths. Yet, a Princeton Survey found strong bipartisan support (83%) for maintaining or increasing funding.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

Street improvements made by the New York City Department of Transportation (DOT) positively impact bicyclists, pedestrians, traffic flow, and spur economic development in Manhattan commercial office Spaces.
Liff, J., 2012 - "If You Build It...The Impact of Street Improvements on Commercial Office Space," streetsblog.org, June 2012

A census of cyclists in Calgary, Canada found that 75% of cyclists commuting downtown were male. Women were more likely than men to be possible or occasional cyclists, while men were more likely than women to be regular cyclists. Women were more concerned about safety, being able to carry daily items, and the need to fix their hair.
Twaddle, H., et al., 2011 - Latent bicycle commuting demand and effects of gender on commuter cycling and accident rates, Transportation Research Record, 2190/2010, 28-36

Sixty percent of people in England who are able to ride a bike are deterred from cycling because they feel it's unsafe to cycle on roads. More than half said they would start riding or ride more often if there were more cycle paths.
Thornton, A., et al., 2010 - Climate Change and Transport Choices, Department of Transport

A survey of Australian adults found that three in five have access to a bike, but many don't ride at all or as much as they want to due to road and safety issues. Respondents said that separated bike paths would encourage them to start riding at all or more often.
Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011 - Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings

A survey of adult Georgians found that 92% agree that encouraging bicycling is a long-term investment in a higher quality of life for their community, and more than 4 in 5 Georgians say they would ride a bike more frequently if their community had better bike facilities.
University of Georgia, 2011 - 2011 Statewide Survey on Bicycle Issues

A survey of New York City bicyclists found: The majority of cyclists prefer riding on off-street bike facilities to on-street (76%); The most common reasons non-commuting cyclists don't bike commute to work are driver behavior/traffic and lack of safe storage at work; The most common reasons people bike commute are because it is healthy/good exercise and it is environmentally friendly; The average bike commute takes 35 minutes
New York City Department of City Planning, 2007 - The New York City Bicycle Survey, May 2007

Eighty-four percent of Americans who do and 71% who don't participate in outdoor activities say that biking/walking trails in their neighborhood are important to them.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2011 - Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2011

A survey of users of Portland, Oregon's Intertwine path system found that 22% of bicyclists were using the paths for pleasure or exercise (compared to 97% of pedestrians) and 76% of bicyclists were using it for commuting to work or school (compared to 2% of pedestrians)
Oregon Metro, 2011 - Intertwine trail use snapshot

A poll of New York City residents found that 60% support bike lanes, 64% see more New Yorkers biking in the next five years, and 76% want to increase or maintain the number of bike lanes.
Lisberg, A., 2012 - "Bike lanes will be old news for new mayor, survey says," City & State, 13 March 2012

From 2006-2011, bicycling in San Francisco increased 71 percent. From 2010-2011, it increased 7 percent, making up 3.5 % of all trips in the city. The greatest growth in bicycling came on Market Street, which has green, protected bikeways. On Market Street, bicycling increased 115% from 2006, and 43% from 2010.
San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2012 - 2011 Bicycle Count Report

A national poll found that the majority of Americans overwhelming agree that Congress should maintain or increase funding for sidewalks and bike lanes.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

In 2012, less than 2% of federal transportation funding went to sidewalks, bike lanes, and bike paths. Yet, a Princeton Survey found strong bipartisan support (83%) for maintaining or increasing funding.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

A poll of New York City residents shortly after the launch of bike sharing found that the program was broadly popular.
Poll: Bike Sharing Widely Popular After First Month, WNYC.org, June 27, 2013

Employees are less likely to cycle to work if their employer provides free car parking, and more likely to cycle to work if their employer provides bike parking and showers.
Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center, 2009 - Trends and Determinants of Cycling in the Washington, D.C., Region

Workers are more likely to commute by bike if their commute trip distance is short.
Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center, 2009 - Trends and Determinants of Cycling in the Washington, D.C., Region

35% of participants in focus groups made up of of African, African American and Hispanic Portland residents said that they did not have a place to store a bicycle where it would not get stolen.
Community Cycling Center, 2012 - Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project Final Report, July 2012

In a survey of Portland residents, those people who are interested in cycling but concerned about their safety reported that they would be much more comfortable in a physically separated bike lane than in a painted bike lane.
Dill, J., and McNeil, N., 2012 - Four Types of Cyclists? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential (Working paper)


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