Statistics Library / Economic Statistics

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Cost of automobiles and dependence on foreign oil:

One mile of roadway planned through Golden Gate Park is 1,283 times more expensive to San Franciscans than one mile of protected bike lane.
San Francisco Bicycle Coalition - No, protected bike lanes are probably not too expensive for your city to build

The US is responsible for a quarter of global oil consumption. The transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of this.
US Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2007 - in Jacobson, S., and D. King, 2009, Measuring the potential for automobile fuel savings in the US: The impact of obesity, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14, 6-13

In 1990, the average urban American drove 2 ½ times as much (11,155 - 1,470 km) as an urban European (4,519 - 707 km).
Kenworthy, J., and F. Laube, 1999 - Patterns of automobile dependence in cities: An international overview of key physical and economic dimensions with some implications for urban policy, Transportation Research Part A, 33, 691-723

If all Americans ages 10-64 were to bicycle instead of drive for 60 minutes a day, gasoline demand would be reduced by 48 billion gallons, equal to 35% of 2005 domestic oil consumption.
Higgins, P., and M. Higgins, 2005 - A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions, Energy Policy, 22, 1-4

The U.S. transportation sector is almost entirely dependent on petroleum as an energy source. Nearly two-thirds of the petroleum used in the U.S. is imported.
U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, and Department of Transportation, 2 - Pocket Guide to Transportation 2009

In 2009, congestion caused 4.8 billion hours of travel delay and 3.9 billion gallons of wasted fuel, equaling a cost of more than $115 billion.
Schrank, D., and T. Lomax, 2010 - The 2010 Urban Mobility Report, Texas Transportation Institute

Only 5% of households with an income of $20,000 to $39,999 have no motor vehicle.
Pucher, J., and J. Renne, 2003 - Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, Transportation Quarterly, 57, 49-77

In 2000, 76% of workers (97.5 million people) drove to work alone.
Reschovsky, C., 2004 - Journey to Work: 2000, Census 2000 Brief, US Census Bureau

Between 1995 and 2001, Americans spent about 10% more time in their vehicles but traveled about the same number of miles.
Hu, P., and T. Reuscher, 2004 - Summary of Travel Trends: 2001 National Household Travel Survey, U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration

The average American household spends an entire three months' pay on transportation.
Center for Neighborhood Technology, 2009 - in AZ Central.com, 2009, "Average cost of transport consumes 3 months' pay"

It costs $100,000 to buy and drive a Ford F-250 the average amount (15,000 miles/year) for the typical amount of time (5 years).
Leonhardt, D., 2008 - Big vehicles stagger under the weight of $4 gas, The New York Times

Cars are used for 75% of trips under one mile.
Blomberg, R., et al., 2004 - Pedestrian transportation: A look forward, TRB A3B04: Committee on Pedestrians

Americans spend more on transportation than any other category except housing. On average, 18% of household expenditures are for transportation.
U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, and Department of Transportation, 2 - Pocket Guide to Transportation 2009

The average amount of time an American spends in a vehicle is slightly more than an hour a day.
Hu, P., and T. Reuscher, 2004 - Summary of Travel Trends: 2001 National Household Travel Survey, U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration

The average annual operating cost of a bicycle is $308, less than 4% that of an average car ($8,220).
Bike cost from Moritz, W., 1997. Automobile cost from U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2009 - Pocket Guide to Transportation

Excess air pollution in parts of California costs $28 billion annually (up to $1,600 per person) in health care costs, school absences, missed work and lost income potential from premature deaths.
Hall, J., et al., 2008 - The benefits of meeting Federal Clean Air standards in the South Coast and San Joaquin Valley Air Basins, California State University Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies (IEES)

In 2007, the average annual delay for every person using motorized travel during peak periods was 36 hours, equivalent to: Almost 5 vacation days Almost 13 big league baseball games More than 600 average online video clips
Schrank, D., and T. Lomax, 2009 - The 2009 Urban Mobility Report, Texas Transportation Institute

On a weekday, the average car driven into Manhattan causes a total of 3.26 hours of delays to other drivers, the equivalent of $160.
Salmon, F., in T. Valderbilt, 2009 - "Cincinnati Across the Horizon," July 7, 2009, How We Drive, the Blog of Tom Vanderbilt's Traffic

A household in a low density neighborhood drives 1,200 more miles and uses 65 more gallons of fuel per year than a similar household in a high density neighborhood.
Brownstone, D., and T. Golob, 2008 - The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and energy consumption, forthcoming in the Journal of Urban Economics

Households in automobile-dependent communities devote 50% more—an extra $3,000 on average—to transportation than households in communities with better bike and pedestrian facilities.
McCann, 2000 - in Economic Value of Walkability, T. Litman, 2009

The average fuel efficiency of today's U.S.vehicle fleet has increased just 3 MPG since the days of the Ford Model T. Fuel efficiency has barely increased since 1991.
Sivak, M., and Tsimhoni, O., 2009 - Fuel Efficiency of Vehicles on US Roads: 1923–2006, Energy Policy, 37, 3168-3170

More than 1 million people have died in motor vehicle crashes in the last 25 years in the U.S. In 2008, more than 100 people died every day in car crashes.
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 2009 - 2009 Traffic Safety Culture Index

More than a third of American drivers (34%) report that they have decided not to make a driving trip in the last month due to anticipated traffic.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

More than half of American drivers (52%) believe that traffic has gotten worse in the last three years, and 16% think it had gotten much worse.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

44% of American drivers believe traffic congestion increases their stress levels, 25% say it makes them feel more angry, 16% say it negatively affects work or school performance, and 11% say they it makes them get less sleep.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

Americans say that if their commute times were reduced, they'd spend the extra time: with family and friends (52%) recreating (37%) exercising (37%) sleeping (33%) working (11%)
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

86% of Americans say they have been stuck in traffic in the last three years, and the average delay is one hour.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

37 percent of Americans say they would pay between $10 and $20 to reduce their daily commute by 15 minutes.18% would pay up to $40 a day.
IBM Corporation, 2009 - The Commuter's Challenge: The impact of traffic congestion in the U.S., 2009 Commuter Pain Survey

One of every 10 barrels of crude oil ends up in U.S. gasoline tanks.
Gold, R., and A. Campoy, 2009 - "Oil Industry Braces for Drop in U.S. Thirst for Gasoline," The Wall Street Journal, April 13, 2009

Americans rank the automobile as their most important possession; 88% consider it a necessity, not a luxury, more than a clothes dryer (66%), air conditioning (54%), or a TV (52%).
Taylor, P., et al., 2009 - Luxury of Necessity?: The Public Makes a U-Turn, Pew Research Center, April 23, 2009

Traffic congestion is linked to poor health in infants. Reductions in traffic congestion can reduce the incidence of prematurity and low birth weight among mothers who live within 2km of a road.
Currie, J., and R. Walker, 2009 - "Traffic congestion and infant health: Evidence from E-ZPass," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 15413

In metro areas, nearly 50 percent of families without a car live in the suburbs.
Colorado Department of Transportation, 2006 - Mobility needs of low income and minority households research study, November 2006

In the US, 99 percent of all car trips begin and end at a parking space that is free to the driver.
Shoup, 1999 - in Krizek, K., et al., Walking and Cycling International Literature Review, Victoria Department of Transportation

In 2001, the average American spent 64 minutes daily in a vehicle.
Hu, P., and T. Reuscher, 2004 - Summary of travel trends: 2001 National Household Travel Survey, U.S. Department of Transportation

Since 1960, the number of people commuting to work outside the county in which they live has increased 200%.
Killingsworth, R., and T. Schmid, 2001 - in "Merging long range transportation planning with public health: A case study from Utah's Wasatch front," Preventive Medicine, 50, S6-S8

Since 1936, the number of miles driven by Americans has grown two-and-a-half times faster than the U.S. population.
Handy, S., 2003 - in "Merging long range transportation planning with public health: A case study from Utah's Wasatch front," Preventive Medicine, 50, S6-S8

A quarter of teenagers drive more than 20 miles per day.
Trowbridge, M., and N McDonald, 2008 - Urban sprawl and miles driven daily by teenagers in the United States, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 202-6

In the US, there are 5 vehicles for every 4 drivers.
Brown, L., 2010 - "U.S. Car Fleet Shrank by Four Million in 2009," Earth Policy Institute, January 6, 2010

New US immigrants are twice as likely to live in households without vehicles as immigrants who have lived in the US for ten years or more. However, even after spending a decade in the US, immigrants are still twice as likely to live in households without automobiles compared to the US-born population.
McGuckin and Srnivasan, 2003 - in Handy, S., et al., 2009, "Travel behavior of immigrant groups in California," California PATH Research Project

In the U.S., thirty-five million people live within 300 feet of a major roadway, putting them at higher risk of respiratory illness.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2009 - in "The Hidden Health Costs of Transportation"

The city of Sydney, Australia conducted a study that found adding 200km of bikeways to the city would deliver at least $500 million ($3.88 for every dollar spent) in economic benefits. The network would also reduce traffic congestion by 4.3 million car trips/year, increase bike trips 66% by 2016, and provide $147 million in health benefits.
Southern Courier - Cycling equals big financial benefits plus fewer cars, says new study, 14 May 2010

New Yorkers save $19 billion per year because they rely less on cars than residents of other major U.S. cities.
CEOs for Cities, 2010 - New York City's Green Dividend

Americans drive 55 minutes per day on average.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

In 2009, it cost an average of $0.57 per mile to own and operate a vehicle.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2010 - Your Driving Costs, American Automobile Association, Transportation Statistics Annual Report 2010, 130

If American adults each drove one mile less per day, it would reduce the adult obesity rate by 2.16 percent over six years.
Jacobson, S., et al., 2011 - A note on the relationship between obesity and driving, Transport Policy, 11 May 2011

There are 800 million car parking spaces in the U.S., totaling 160 billion square feet of concrete and asphalt. The environmental impact of all car parking spaces adds 10 percent to the CO2 emissions of the average automobile.
Chester, M., et al., 2010 - Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting, Environmental Research Letters, 5

Unnecessary vehicle idling in New York City costs drivers $28 million a year, causes as much smog-forming pollution as 9 million large trucks driving from the Bronx to Staten Island, and wastes the gasoline equal to 40,000 cars driving from Midtown to JFK.
Burgess, E., et al., 2009 - Idling Gets You Nowhere: The health, environmental and economic impacts of engine idling in New York City, Environmental Defense Fund

The transportation sector is responsible for 71% of all U.S. petroleum use.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2010 - Energy Information Administration Monthly Energy Review, U.S. Department of Energy, in Transportation Statistics Annual Report 2010, 143

Americans drive 55 minutes per day on average.
Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003 - Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey


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Cost of inactivity, overweight, and obesity:

If cycling participation increased enough to reduce obesity by about 3%, national medical expenditures could be reduced by $6 billion.
Rashad, I., 2008 - Cycling: An increasingly untouched source of physical and mental health, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, 12929

The annual cost of obesity to employers ranges from $175 for every overweight male employee to $2,485 for every grade-II (BMI 30-40) obese female.
Finkelstein, E., et al., 2005 - The costs of obesity among full-time employees, American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 45-51

The annual individual medical cost of inactivity ($622) is more than 2 ½ times the annual cost per user of bike and pedestrian trails ($235).
Wang, G., et al., 2004 - Cost analysis of the built environment: The case of bike and pedestrian trails in Lincoln, Neb, American Journal of Public Health, 94, 549-53

Obesity costs a company with 1,000 employees $285,000 per year.
Finkelstein, E., et al., 2005 - The costs of obesity among full-time employees, American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 45-51

In 2008, overweight and obesity cost the U.S. $147 billion, up $30 billion from 2000.
RTI International, 2009 and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001 - in Hellmich, N., "Obesity a key link to soaring health tab as costs double," USA Today, Just 27, 2009

By building a bicycle trail, it costs just $98 to help a person become more physically active.
Wang, G., et al., 2004 - Cost effectiveness of a bicycle/pedestrian trail development in health promotion, Preventive Medicine, 38, 237-42

It costs three to four times more to enroll a sedentary adult in a structured exercise program than to teach them how to integrate moderate-intensity physical activity into their life [e.g. bicycling for transportation].
Sevick, M., et al., 2000 - Cost-effectiveness of lifestyle and structured exercise interventions in sedentary adults: Results of project ACTIVE, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19, 1-8

Obese workers are more likely to report lost productive time than normal-weight workers, costing U.S. companies an estimated $42.49 billion in lost time.
Ricci, J., and Chee, E., 2005 - Lost productive time associated with excess weight in the U.S. workforce, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 47, 1227-34

One billion extra gallons of gasoline are consumed annually due to overweight and obesity in the US.
Jacobson, S., and D. King, 2009 - Measuring the potential for automobile fuel savings in the US: The impact of obesity, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14, 6-13

Every one-pound increase in the average weight of American car passengers increases fuel consumption by 40 million gallons.
Jacobson, S., and D. King, 2009 - Measuring the potential for automobile fuel savings in the US: The impact of obesity, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14, 6-13

A study from the Netherlands determined that employers could save 27 million euros by encouraging employees to cycle to work more.
TNO, 2009 - "Reduced sickness absence in regular commuter cyclists can save employers 27 million euros"

Workers with a higher BMI are more likely to report short-term disability in the workplace.
Arena, V., et al., 2006 - The impact of body mass index on short-term disability in the workplace, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48, 1118-24

Every year, the following diseases caused by inactivity cost Americans: Heart disease - $175 billion Diabetes - $100 billion Arthritis - $84 billion Stroke -$43 billion Breast cancer - $16 billion Colon cancer - $8 billion Gall bladder disease - $7 billion Prostate cancer - $6 billion
Pretty, J., et al., 2003 - Green Exercise: Complementary roles of nature, exercise and diet in physical and emotional well-being and implications for public health policy, CES Occasional Paper 2003-1, University of Essex

In 20 years, the cost of hospital visits for obese children have more than tripled from $35 million in 1979-1981 to $127 million in 1997-1999.
Outdoor Foundation - "Getting Youth Active: Inactivity among American Youth"

There is significant long-term cost savings with interventions among overweight children who are likely to become obese adults.
Finkelstein, E., and J. Trogdon, 2008 - Public health interventions for addressing childhood overweight: Analysis of the business case, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

On average, an obese patient has $4,871 in medical bills a year compared with $3,442 for a patient at a healthy weight.
RTI International, 2009 - in Hellmich, N., "Obesity a key link to soaring health tab as costs double," USA Today, Just 27, 2009

Obesity now accounts for 9.1% of all medical spending, up from 6.5% in 1998.
RTI International, 2009 - in Hellmich, N., "Obesity a key link to soaring health tab as costs double," USA Today, Just 27, 2009

In Oregon, at least 6 extra pounds per person can be attributed to urban sprawl. If every person in the state lost those 6 pounds, the state would save $206 million per year in healthcare expenses.
Upstream Public Health, 2006 - Creating a Transportation Policy for a Healthier Oregon

Between 1987 and 2001, increases in the proportion of and spending on obese people relative to people of normal weight accounted for 27 percent of the rise in healthcare spending.
Thorpe, K., et al., 2004 - The impact of obesity on rising medical spending, Health Affairs (Project HOPE), W4-480-6

Each hour per day spent driving corresponds with a 6% increase in the odds of being obese.
Frank, L., et al., 2004 - Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27, 87-96

There is a direct correlation between feelings of personal safety and the number and percentage of weekly trips taken by bike.
Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009 - Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences in Oregon and Southwest Washington, presented to the Bicycle Transportation Alliance, September 8, 2009

In 2008, Americans spent $59 billion on weight loss programs, surgeries, and foods.
Pollack, A., 2009 - "Medicine's elusive goal: A safe weight-loss drug," The New York Times, October 17, 2009

In 2018, obesity will affect 43 percent of U.S. adults and add $344 billion to direct health care costs if nothing is done soon.
Thorpe, K., 2009 - in "Obesity Rates, Treatment Costs Can't Fall Without Healthy Food and Active Lifestyles," Smart Growth News, November 17, 2009

In 2018, obesity-related healthcare costs will average $1,425 per person, up from $361 per adult in 2008.
Thorpe, K., 2009 - The future costs of obesity: National and state estimates of the impact of obesity on direct health care expenses, November 2009

80% of Americans recognize childhood obesity as a serious problem, and 50% of Americans believe that it is such an important issue that we need to invest more to prevent it immediately.
Quinlan, A., et al. in Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2010 - F as in Fat: 2010: How obesity threatens American's future

Half of Louisiana schoolchildren are obese or overweight.
Burgess, R., 2010 - "Study: 1 in 2 school kids fat," 2theadvocate.com, 23 April 2010

The annual cost of being obese is $4,879 for a woman and $2,646 for a man.
Neergaard, L., 2010 - "Report: Obesity hurts your wallet and your health," Associated Press, Sept 20, 2010

The total annual cost of overweight and obesity in the United States is $270 billion.
Behan, D., et al., 2010 - Obesity and its relation to mortality and morbidity costs

If American adults each drove one mile less per day, it would reduce the adult obesity rate by 2.16 percent over six years.
Jacobson, S., et al., 2011 - A note on the relationship between obesity and driving, Transport Policy, 11 May 2011

If current trends continue, nearly half of U.S. adults will be obese by 2020.
Stewart, S., et al., 2009 - Forecasting the effects of obesity and smoking on U.S. life expectancy, The New England Journal of Medicine, 361, 23

Eighty-six percent of American workers are overweight and/or have chronic health troubles, costing companies $153 billion in lost productivity each year.
Gallup-Healthyways in Simpson, I., 2011 - "Ailing and overweight Americans cost billions in productivity," 17 October 2011, Reuters US

By 2030 there will be 65 million more obese adults in the U.S., costing the country an additional $48-66 billion in annual healthcare costs.
Wang, Y., et al., 2011 - Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK, Lancet, 378(9793):815-25

Each kilometer cycled in Denmark produces an estimated benefit of 22 cents for all of society; each kilometer driven, meanwhile, costs society about 20 cents. The positive health benefits of all the cycling in Copenhagen are worth an estimated $306 million per year.
Copenhagen City of Cyclists: Bicycle Account 2012

A study of Texas commuters found that those with longer commutes were likely to get less physical exercise, have worse cardiorespiratory fitness and be more overweight than those with shorter commutes.
Hoehner, C. M., et. al. 2012 - Commuting distance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and metabolic risk. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, Volume 42 Issue 6


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Economic benefits of bicycling facilities and transporation:

By shifting traffic from cars to bikes and making it easier to reach transit stops, Austin's planned protected bike lane network is projected to increase the city's traffic capacity by about 25,000 trips per day at about the same cost ratio as a single expressway widening.
Wilkes, Nathan. - "City of Austin 2014 Bike Plan Update." Slide 47.

A survey of San Francisco's Polk Street found that only 15 percent of people on the street arrived by car.
SF Municipal Transportation Agency, 2013

A survey of San Francisco's Valencia Street after installation of protected lanes found that 65% of participating merchants believed the lanes lanes had a positive impact on business.
Clifton, K., et al., 2012 - Consumer Behavior and Travel Mode Choices

Bike friendliness can be a factor in where an individual decides to live and work. In Portland, Ore., where nine percent of downtown workers bike to work, the city surveyed recent transplants to the city who bike in 2009, and 62 percent of respondents said the city’s bike friendliness was a factor in their decision to move there.
Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009 - Portland Bicycle Maps and Information Survey

Customers who arrive at retail stores by bike spend the same amount per month as comparable people who arrive by car - they tend to make smaller purchases but return more frequently. Studies in Toronto; New Zealand; Wales; Davis, California; and Portland, Oregon, all found this to be the case.
Clifton, K., et al., 2012 - "Consumer Behavior and Travel Mode Choices"

Rents along New York City's Times Square pedestrian and bicycle paths increased 71 percent in 2010, the greatest rise in the city and a sign that there is high demand and low supply for human-friendly streets.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011

Protected bike lanes can be part of street redesigns that greatly boost retail performance. After the construction of a protected bike lane on 9th Avenue, local businesses saw a 49 percent increase in retail sales. On other streets in the borough, the average was only 3 percent.
NYC DOT, 2012 - Measuring the Street

The more often an employee cycles and the longer the distance traveled, the lower the rate of absenteeism.
TNO, 2009 - "Reduced sickness absence in regular commuter cyclists can save employers 27 million euros"

The Virginia Creeper Trail generates $1.59 million in annual spending, supporting 27 new full-time jobs.
United States Department of Agriculture, 2004 - in Trails and Economic Development, 2007, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy

A £10,000 investment in cycling infrastructure takes just one additional regular cyclist to recoup its cost. A £100,000 investment takes 11 additional regular cyclists.
Cycling England, 2008 - in Bike for All, "It pays to invest in bikes, Cycling England tells councils"

Through improvements in health, reductions in congestion, and by enhancing the ambient environment, a 50% increase in the number of trips by bicycle in England would generate benefits worth £1.3 billion by 2015.
Cycling England, 2008 - in Bike for All, "It pays to invest in bikes, Cycling England tells councils"

48% of Dutch HR managers report that their organization promotes cycling to work.
TNO, 2009 - "Reduced sickness absence in regular commuter cyclists can save employers 27 million euros"

A fall 2008 study estimated that cycling saves British commuters an average £34 ($51) a week or collectively up to £111.2 million ($167 million).
Sainsbury's Home Insurance, 2008 - "Over three million commuters start cycling to keep costs down"

The benefits of investments in cycle networks are estimated to be at least 4-5 times the costs, making such investments more beneficial to society than other transport alternatives.
Saelensminde, K., 2004 - Cost-benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks taking into account insecurity, health effects, and external costs of motorized traffic, Transportation Research Part A, 38, 593-606

In Minneapolis-St. Paul, for every 400 meters closer a median-priced home is to an off-street bicycle facility, its value increases by $510.
Krizek, K., 2006 - Two approaches to valuing some of bicycle facilities' presumed benefits, Journal of the American Planning Association, 72, 309-19

A recent CDC study found that community-based physical activity interventions, such as new bike paths and trails, are "money well spent", meaning they are more cost-effective than traditional preventive strategies in reducing new cases of many chronic diseases and improving quality of life. Interventions like enhanced access to bike paths reduce new cases of disease by: 5-15 cases per 100,000 people for colon cancer; 15-58 cases per 100,000 for breast cancer; 59-207 cases per 100,000 for type 2 diabetes; 140-476 cases per 100,000 for heart disease
Roux et al., 2008; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008 - Cost effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35, 578-588

In a survey of recent transplants to Portland, OR, 62% said that the city's bike-friendliness was a factor in their decision to move there.
City of Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009 - Portland Bicycle Maps and Information Survey, Transportation Options Division, reported via BikePortland.org

When San Francisco made its Valencia Street less conducive to automobile travel and better for bicyclists and pedestrians, nearly 40% of merchants reported increased sales and 60% reported more area residents shopping locally due to reduced travel time and convenience. Two-thirds of merchants said the increased levels of bicycling and walking improved business.
Drennan, E., 2003 - in "The Benefits of Complete Streets 7: Complete streets spark economica revitilization"

Shifting travel from driving to biking can reduce external costs (costs paid by society) by 25 cents per mile in average conditions and 50 per mile in heavy urban traffic.
Litman, T., 2009 - Economic Value of Walkability

Houses located in areas with above-average levels of walkability [or bikeability] are worth up to $34,000 more than similar houses in areas with average walkability levels.
Cortright, J., 2009 - "Walking the Walk: How walkability raises home values in U.S. cities," CEOs for Cities

Portland, Oregon residents save $2.6 billion per year thanks to spending less time in cars and more biking or walking.
Cortright, J., 2007 - "Portland's Green Dividend," CEOs for Cities

The health benefit of a kilometer of cycling is valued at $1.
de Jong, P., 2009 - Evaluating the health benefits of bicycle helmet laws

A Toronto study found that customers arriving by foot and bicycle visited the most often and spent the most money per month.
The Clean Air Partnership, 2010 - Bike Lanes, On-Street Parking and Business: Year 2 Report

According to a study of the Little Miami Scenic Trail, for every foot closer a house is to the trail, its price increases by $7.05.
Karadeniz, D., 2008 - The Impact of the Little Miami Scenic Trail on Single Family Property Values, University of Cincinnati Masters Thesis

Two-thirds of Omaha, Nebraska, residents who live near bike trails believe the trails would increase the selling price of their home.
Greer, D. L., 2000 - Omaha Recreational Trails: Their Effect on Property Values and Public Safety, National Park Service, University of Nebraska at Omaha, June, 2000

The City of Copenhagen calculated how much they would save if cycling increased 10%. They found that: The healthcare system would save DKK 59 million annually There would be an annual savings of DKK 155 million due to reduced production loss The labor market would have 57,000 fewer days of absence 61,000 extra years of life 46,000 fewer years of prolonged, severe illness 25 fewer early retirement pensions annually
City of Copenhagen, 2006 - Bicycle Account, 2006

Local sales of bicycles jumped 35% after the Velib bike sharing system was installed in Paris.
Nadal, L., 2008 - "Velib: One year later," Sustainable Transport, Winter 2008

It costs the same to build parking for 75 bikes as it does for just 4 cars.
Tran, V., 2010 - "Student Commuter Trends: More students are biking, less driving," The Daily Vanguard Online, 5 February 2010

Trails in the Miami Valley of Ohio attract 1 million visitors who spend up to $16 million on goods and services related to their use of the trails every year.
Miami Valley Regional Planning Commission, 2009 - Miami Valley Trail User Survey Report

The city of Sydney, Australia conducted a study that found adding 200km of bikeways to the city would deliver at least $500 million ($3.88 for every dollar spent) in economic benefits. The network would also reduce traffic congestion by 4.3 million car trips/year, increase bike trips 66% by 2016, and provide $147 million in health benefits.
Southern Courier - Cycling equals big financial benefits plus fewer cars, says new study, 14 May 2010

The entire 2,250-mile East Cost Greenway bike route network could be upgraded for one-fifth the cost of a highway bridge.
LaHood, R., 2010 - "DOT bicycle-pedestrian policy gets 'thumbs up'," Welcome to the FastLane: The official blog of the U.S. Secretary of Transportation, 1 June 2010

New Yorkers save $19 billion per year because they rely less on cars than residents of other major U.S. cities.
CEOs for Cities, 2010 - New York City's Green Dividend

68% of businesses involved in Portland, Oregon's SmartTrips Business program said that promoting biking and walking helped them market their business.
Maus, J., 2010 - "PBOT releases results of SmartTrips Business Program," BikePortland.org, 19 February 2010

A 20-year study of efforts to make streets less convenient for autos and better for pedestrians and cyclists found that after changes are implemented, businesses in these areas show stronger growth than auto-friendly shopping centers.
Hass-Klau, C., 1993 - Impact of pedestrianization and traffic calming on retailing: A reviews of the evidence from Germany and the UK, Transport Policy, 1, 21-31

A report estimated that Portland, Oregon's regional trail network saves the city approximately $115 million per year in healthcare costs.
Beil, K., 2011 - Physical Activity and the Intertwine: A Public Health Method of Reducing Obesity and Healthcare Costs

Increasing the comfort of biking to a commercial district makes its real estate more productive, because six bikes or more can park in the space of one car. In a Melbourne study of dollars spent per minute by various shoppers, filled bike parking brought in 69 cents per hour per square foot, while filled auto parking brought in 19 cents.
Lee, A., 2007 - What is the economic contribution of cyclists compared to car drivers in inner Melbourne's shopping strips, Masters of Urban Planning thesis, University of Melbourne

Bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure projects create up to double the jobs (11-14) of road infrastructure projects (7) per $1 million spent.
Garrett-Peltier, H., 2010 - Estimating the employment impacts of pedestrian, bicycle, and road infrastructure, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

For every 10 miles bicycled instead of driven, society saves nearly $10.
City of Copenhagen, 2009 - Working paper: Economic evaluation of cycle projects - methodology and unit prices

Bicyclists on Minnesota's trails spend $481 million annually while recreating, creating 5,880 jobs and $40.6 million in state and local taxes.
Venegas, E., 2009 - Economic Impact of Recreational Trail Use in Different Regions of Minnesota (p. 36)

After Mississippi's Longleaf Trace trail opened, sales in a nearby bike shop doubled and have risen ever since. The business's growth generated an additional $175,000 in state sales tax, of which $31,500 was returned to the city.
Moore, J., 2011 - "Bike trail boosts business in Mississippi," Bikeleague.org Blog, 16 March 2011

Homes located on a bike boulevard are worth $5,757 more than homes not on one.
Rice, E., 2008 - Valuing Bike Boulevards in Portland Through Hedonic Regression, USP 570 Analytical Term Paper

Rents along New York City's Times Square pedestrian and bicycle paths increased 71% in 2010, the greatest rise in the city.
New York City Department of Transportation, 2011 - Bicycle Friendly Community grant application

Biking and hiking trails in Teton County, Wyoming create an annual economic benefit of more than $18 million. The trail system cost $1.7 million to build over the last decade.
Kaliszewski, N., 2011 - Jackson Hole Trails Project Economic Impact Study, University of Wyoming

A Dutch study found that cyclists spend less per visit than motorists at supermarkets, but they visit more often. As a result, cyclists account for at least as much spending as people arriving by car.
Fietsberaad, 2011 - "Cyclists spend as much in supermarket as motorists"

Bicycling projects create an average of 11.4 jobs per million dollars spent, compared to just 7.8 jobs for road-only projects.
Garrett-Peltier, H., 2011 - Pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure: A national study of employment impacts, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst

An Ohio State University study estimated that the Mill Creek Greenway could provide approximately $10 million in economic benefits and property value increases for Mill Creek and surrounding communities.
Ohio State University, 2008 - Mill Creek River Resource Economic Study

By encouraging employees to bike commute, Minnesota company QBP saved $170,000 in health care costs over three years and $301,136 in employee productivity every year.
League of American Bicyclists, 2011 - Quality Bike Products Health and Wellbeing Program

Bicycling generates £3 billion per year for the UK economy. If bicycling increased another 20% by 2015, it would save the economy £207 million in reduced traffic conditions, £71 million in reduced pollution, and £52 million in reduced healthcare costs.
Grous, A., 2011 - The British Cycling Economy

The health benefits of Ciclovia events outweigh the costs by a factor of up to 4:1.
Montes, F., et al., 2011 - Do health benefits outweigh the costs of mass recreational programs? An economic analysis of four Ciclovia programs, Journal of Urban Health

Three bike paths in Central Florida bring $42 million to the local economy every year.
East Central Florida Regional Planning Council in Tracy, D., 2011 - "Bike trails pump $42M into Central Florida economy, study says," Orlando Sentinel, 17 October 2011

Homeowners are willing to pay a $9,000 premium to live within 1,000 feet of the Little Miami Scenic Trail.
vom Hofe, R., and Parent, O., in University of Cincinnati, 2011 - "New Research Finds that Homeowners and City Planners Should 'Hit the Trail' When Considering Property Values"

Bicyclists in the United States save $4.6 billion each year by bicycling instead of driving.
League of American Bicyclists, 2012 - Pedaling to Prosperity: Bicycling will save Americans $4.6 billion in 2012

In Iowa, bicycling brings $435 million per year in economic activity, plus $82 million in annual health cost savings. The annual infrastructure investment by the state is approximately $3 million. Economic benefits include: $365 million - Recreational cyclists (plus $74 million in reduced health care costs); $52 million - Commuter cyclists (plus $13 million in reduced health care costs); $18 million - Bicycle retailers; $0.3 million - Bicycle organizations
Lankford, J., et al., 2012 - Economic & health benefits of bicycling in Iowa

Transportation enhancements projects were the most labor intensive type of highway spending through ARRA and generated the most jobs per $ million spent (17.03) of any kind of highway investment. The average job creation for a highway project is 10.55 jobs/$ million.
Dowell, P., 2012 - Mining Recovery Act Data for Opportunities to Improve the State of Practice for Overall Economic Impact Analysis of Transportation Investments

A report of the four Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program communities found: 16 million miles were bicycled or walked that would have otherwise been driven in 2012; The number of bicyclists increased 49 percent on average between 2007 and 2010; The share of trips taken by bicycle increased 36 percent; Driving mode share decreased 3 percent; Additional biking and walking trips saved the communities $6.9 million by reducing the economic cost of mortality
Federal Highway Administration, 2012 - Report to the U.S. Congress on the outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807

Street improvements made by the New York City Department of Transportation (DOT) positively impact bicyclists, pedestrians, traffic flow, and spur economic development in Manhattan commercial office Spaces.
Liff, J., 2012 - "If You Build It...The Impact of Street Improvements on Commercial Office Space," streetsblog.org, June 2012

More than one third of people surveyed on Illinois trails spent money in local restaurants or bars as part of their trip, and just under one third reported using the trail frequently, 21 or more times in the past year.
Trails for Illinois, 2013 - Making Trails Count.

Thanks to D.C.’s bike share program, in 2012 its members drove a total of 4.4 million fewer miles and each saved about $800.
2013 Capital Bikeshare Member Survey Report

Each kilometer cycled in Denmark produces an estimated benefit of 22 cents for all of society; each kilometer driven, meanwhile, costs society about 20 cents. The positive health benefits of all the cycling in Copenhagen are worth an estimated $306 million per year.
Copenhagen City of Cyclists: Bicycle Account 2012

Active transportation-related infrastructure, businesses and events are estimated to have contributed $497 million to the New Jersey economy in 2011.
Brown, C. and Hawkins, J. 2012 - The Economic Impacts of Active Transportation in New Jersey

Walking and bicycling events, businesses, travel and infrastructure investments in Vermont were estimated to support about 1,400 jobs and generate $83 million in economic activity in 2009.
Resource Systems Group, Inc. 2012 - Economic Impact of Bicycling and Walking in Vermont

In a study of merchants and shoppers in Bristol, UK, researchers found that merchants guessed that 41% of their customers had arrived by car, when in fact only 22% had done so. Merchants also over-estimated how far away their customers lived, and disagreed with their customers about the impact of transit improvements. A study of Graz, Austria, found similar misconceptions among merchants.
Shoppers and how they travel, 2006

In a study of retail spending, people who arrived by bike, on foot or by transit spent more per month than those customers arriving by car at corner stores, restaurants and bars; only at grocery stores did people arriving by car spend more per month.
Clifton, K. 2013 - Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium

The provision of bike parking and bike corrals near businesses were found to be significant predictors of bike mode share among customers of those businesses.
Clifton, K. 2013 - Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium

After the installation of a protected bike lane in New York City, injuries to all street users decreased by 58% and retail sales increased by as much as 49% (compared to a 3% increase in sales citywide).
Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets, 2012

Riding in "ciclovia" events is associated with more utilitarian cycling.
Gomez et al., 2005 - in Pucher, J., et al., 2009, "International Review of Cycling Interventions," Preventive Medicine

Four mountain bike events in two Central Oregon towns are estimated to have generated an economic impact of nearly $5 million.
McNamee, J. 2013 - The Economic Impact of Mountain Bicycle Events in Oregon

Cycling to school is associated with lower odds of being overweight or obese for adolescents.
Ostergaard, A.G. et al, 2012 - Cycle to school is associated with lower BMI and lower odds of being overweight or obese in a large population-based study of Danish adolescents, Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Volume 9


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Economic benefits of the bicycling industry and tourism:

The Wisconsin bicycle industry brings $556 million and 3,420 jobs to the state.
Bicycle Federation of Wisconsin and Wisconsin Department of Transportation - The Economic Impact of Bicycling in Wisconsin

The quality of bicycling in the northern Outer Banks region positively impacts vacationers' planning: 12% report staying three to four days longer to bicycle; 43% report that bicycling is an important factor in their decision to come to the area; 53% report that bicycling will strongly influence their decision to return to the area in the future
North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, 2004 - The Economic Impact of Investments in Bicycle Facilities: A Case Study of the North Carolina Northern Outer Banks

Bicycle-related economic activity provides $90 million and 850-1150 jobs for the city of Portland, Ore. From 2006 to 2008, the value of the Portland bicycle industry increased 38%.
Alta Planning + Design, 2008 - The Value of the Bicycle-Related Industry in Portland

Bicycle tourism brings $66.8 million to the Maine economy.
Maine Department of Transportation, 2001 - Bicycle Tourism in Maine: Economic Impacts and Marketing Recommendations

The US bicycle industry is a $5.6 billion industry.
National Bicycle Dealers Association, 2010 - Industry Overview 2009

In a survey of visitors to Portland, OR, 78% said that the city's bike-friendliness was a factor in their decision to visit there.
City of Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2009 - Portland Bicycle Maps and Information Survey, Transportation Options Division, reported via BikePortland.org

Bicyclists in the northern Outer Banks region of North Carolina bring an estimated $60 million annually to the area's economy, nearly nine times the one-time expenditure of $6.7 million of public funds to construct bicycle facilities in the region. 1,400 jobs are created and/or supported annually by the bicyclists' expenditures.
North Carolina Department of Transportation Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, 2004 - The Economic Impact of Investments in Bicycle Facilities: A Case Study of the North Carolina Northern Outer Banks

Bicycling brings more than $1 billion to the Colorado state economy.
Colorado Department of Transportation Bicycle/Pedestrian Program, 2000 - Bicycling and Walking in Colorado: Economic Impact and Household Survey Results

In 2005, 19.8 million bicycles were sold in the U.S., 4.4 million more than all the cars and trucks purchased in the U.S. that year.
National Bicycle Dealers Association, 2008; U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2008 - Industry Overview 2007

In Colorado, bike sales bring in $200 million annually, more than total motorcycle sales.
Colorado Department of Transportation Bicycle/Pedestrian Program, 2000 - Bicycling and Walking in Colorado: Economic Impact and Household Survey Results

Mountain bike trails in the Chequamegon Area of Northern Wisconsin brought $1.17 million to the area's economy in 1997.
Sumathi, N., and D. Berard, 1997 - Mountain biking in the Chequamegon area of Northern Wisconsin and implications for regional development

A survey of mountain bikers indicated that 80% of respondents had taken at least one overnight trip to go mountain biking.
Green, D., 2003 - Travel Patterns of Destination Mountain Bikers

A 1996 study estimated that mountain bike tourism brings $8.4 to $8.8 million to Moab, Utah's economy annually.
Fix, P., and J. Loomis, 1996 - The economic benefits of mountain biking at one of its meccas: An application of the travel cost method to mountain biking in Moab, Utah

If resident and non-resident recreational cycling increased 20% in Wisconsin, it would create $184 million in economic activity and generate 2,638 additional jobs.
Grabow, M., et al., 2010 - Valuing Bicycling's Economic and Health Impacts in Wisconsin, January 2010

Recreational bicycling brings more than $924 million to the state of Wisconsin every year.
Grabow, M., et al., 2010 - Valuing Bicycling's Economic and Health Impacts in Wisconsin, January 2010

The bicycle industry is estimated to support 1.1 million jobs, generate nearly $18 billion in federal, state, and local taxes, and contribute $133 billion annually to the U.S. economy.
Outdoor Industry Foundation, 2006 - The Active Outdoor Recreation Economy

The 2009 USA Cycling National Cyclocross Championships brought more than $1 million in direct spending to the Bend, Oregon region. The 2009 Road Nationals brought more than $1.4 million to the area.
Lindberg, K., 2010 - Economic Impact Study: 2009 USA Cycling Cyclocross National Championships

The average bicycle shop has 6 full-time employees. With approximately 4,200 specialty bicycle retailers in the U.S., this totals 25,620 people employed full-time by these retailers.
National Bicycle Dealer Association, 2009 - Cost of Doing Business Study

The bicycle industry in Santa Cruz, California generates more than $130 million in annual revenue and employs more than 500 workers.
Davidson, M., 2007 - Economic benefits of mountain bike tourism for Santa Cruz County

Bicycling-related businesses bring $315 million to Minnesota's economy annually.
Mayer, F., 2010 - "Inside Minnesota's Booming Bike Economy," Minnesota Business

The Harbin Park Cyclocross Race in Cincinnati, OH was estimated to bring $200,000 to the community in 2010. 70% of participants traveled in from over 100 miles to compete, and more than 80% stayed two nights or more in the region.
Liberles, J., 2010 - "Money talks, UCI3 Harbin Park event brings $200,000 to community," CXmagazine.com, 3 November 2010

Bicyclists on Minnesota's trails spend $481 million annually while recreating, creating 5,880 jobs and $40.6 million in state and local taxes.
Venegas, E., 2009 - Economic Impact of Recreational Trail Use in Different Regions of Minnesota (p. 36)

In 2010, mountain bike trails at Raystown Lake, PA attracted more than 25,000 visitors, 2.5 times more than predicted. Mountain bikers brought $1.2 million in spending to the region.
Wimpey, J., and Maguire, F., 2011 - Preliminary estimates

Mountain bikers contribute an estimated $25 million to the Fruita, Colorado economy—approximately 15 percent of the annual budget for the entire Mesa County.
LeCarner, T., 2011 - "Fruita Fat Tire Fest: All About the Ride," Singletrack.com, 4 May 2011

The Nature Valley Bicycle Festival generates an economic impact of more than $1.2 million in sales of food, transportation, and other tourism products, supporting 28 new jobs.
Kashian, R., and Kasper, J., 2010 - The Economic Impact of the Nature Valley Bicycle Festival: A pilot study of the Stage 5 Menomonie, WI road race, University of Wisconsin—Whitewater, Department of Economics

Biking and hiking trails in Teton County, Wyoming create an annual economic benefit of more than $18 million. The trail system cost $1.7 million to build over the last decade.
Kaliszewski, N., 2011 - Jackson Hole Trails Project Economic Impact Study, University of Wyoming

Bicycling generates £3 billion per year for the UK economy. If bicycling increased another 20% by 2015, it would save the economy £207 million in reduced traffic conditions, £71 million in reduced pollution, and £52 million in reduced healthcare costs.
Grous, A., 2011 - The British Cycling Economy

The Intrepid Trails mountain bike system in Grand County, Utah brought nearly $25,000 in park revenue in its first year open, 2009. The same year, 179,157 people visited Dead Horse Point State Park (home of the Intrepid Trail System), producing an economic impact of $4.1 million.
Headwaters Economics, 2011 - The economic value of public lands in Grand County, Utah

In Iowa, bicycling brings $435 million per year in economic activity, plus $82 million in annual health cost savings. The annual infrastructure investment by the state is approximately $3 million. Economic benefits include: $365 million - Recreational cyclists (plus $74 million in reduced health care costs); $52 million - Commuter cyclists (plus $13 million in reduced health care costs); $18 million - Bicycle retailers; $0.3 million - Bicycle organizations
Lankford, J., et al., 2012 - Economic & health benefits of bicycling in Iowa

A study done by IFM North America found that the 2012 USA Pro Cycling Challenge attracted over 1 million spectators and generated over $99.6 million in estimated economic impact for the state of Colorado.
Thompson, A. 2012 - "Attendance Over 1 Million for the Second Annual USA Pro Challenge. Race Brings an Estimated $99.6 Million in Economic Impact to the State of Colorado," 303Cycling News, 19 October 2012

In the District of Columbia and Arlington County, members of Capital Bikeshare program show personal purchasing trends leading to big economic gains for local bicycle retailers.
Di Caro, M. 2012 - "From A To B: Bike Shop Owners See Big Returns from Capital Bikeshare," wamu.org, 29 June 2012

In 2012, less than 2% of federal transportation funding went to sidewalks, bike lanes, and bike paths. Yet, a Princeton Survey found strong bipartisan support (83%) for maintaining or increasing funding.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

Bicyclists in the Twin Cities who use the Nice Ride bike-sharing program bring an estimated $150,000 to the area's economy over the course of one season.
Schoner, J., et. al., 2012 - "Nice Ride spurs spending near stations," Center for Transportation Studies Catalyst, July 2012

Travelers in Oregon who participated in bicycling activities spent nearly $400 million in 2012, or 4.4% of all travel spending in the state.
Runyan, D. 2013 - The Economic Significance of Bicycle-Related Travel in Oregon

Four mountain bike events in two Central Oregon towns are estimated to have generated an economic impact of nearly $5 million.
McNamee, J. 2013 - The Economic Impact of Mountain Bicycle Events in Oregon

Active transportation-related infrastructure, businesses and events are estimated to have contributed $497 million to the New Jersey economy in 2011.
Brown, C. and Hawkins, J. 2012 - The Economic Impacts of Active Transportation in New Jersey

The ripple effects of all recreational bicycling in the U.S. add nearly $200 billion to the nation’s economy per year, supporting nearly 1.5 million jobs and providing about $25 billion in tax revenue.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2012 - The Outdoor Recreation Economy 2012

An estimated 13% of all spending on outdoor recreation trips in the U.S. – including camping, fishing, hiking and skiing – is spent on bike trips.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2012 - The Economic Contributions of Outdoor Recreation: Technical Report, 2012

People taking bike-related trips spent $400 million in Oregon in 2012, representing about 4.4% of all direct travel spending in the state.
Dean Runyan Associates, 2013 - The Economic Significance of Bicycle-Related Travel in Oregon

Walking and bicycling events, businesses, travel and infrastructure investments in Vermont were estimated to support about 1,400 jobs and generate $83 million in economic activity in 2009.
Resource Systems Group, Inc. 2012 - Economic Impact of Bicycling and Walking in Vermont

89% of Americans believe that transportation investments should support the goals of reducing energy use.
National Association of Realtors and Transportation for America, 2009 - 2009 Growth and Transportation Survey

The Intrepid Trails mountain bike system in Grand County, Utah brought nearly $25,000 in park revenue in its first year open, 2009. The same year, 179,157 people visited Dead Horse Point State Park (home of the Intrepid Trail System), producing an economic impact of $4.1 million.
Headwaters Economics, 2011 - The economic value of public lands in Grand County, Utah

A study done by IFM North America found that the 2012 USA Pro Cycling Challenge attracted over 1 million spectators and generated over $99.6 million in estimated economic impact for the state of Colorado.
Thompson, A. 2012 - "Attendance Over 1 Million for the Second Annual USA Pro Challenge. Race Brings an Estimated $99.6 Million in Economic Impact to the State of Colorado," 303Cycling News, 19 October 2012

In the District of Columbia and Arlington County, members of Capital Bikeshare program show personal purchasing trends leading to big economic gains for local bicycle retailers.
Di Caro, M. 2012 - "From A To B: Bike Shop Owners See Big Returns from Capital Bikeshare," wamu.org, 29 June 2012

In 2012, less than 2% of federal transportation funding went to sidewalks, bike lanes, and bike paths. Yet, a Princeton Survey found strong bipartisan support (83%) for maintaining or increasing funding.
National Poll: Americans Support Funding for Sidewalks and Bikeways: 2012 Survey Findings

Bicyclists in the Twin Cities who use the Nice Ride bike-sharing program bring an estimated $150,000 to the area's economy over the course of one season.
Schoner, J., et. al., 2012 - "Nice Ride spurs spending near stations," Center for Transportation Studies Catalyst, July 2012

Travelers in Oregon who participated in bicycling activities spent nearly $400 million in 2012, or 4.4% of all travel spending in the state.
Runyan, D. 2013 - The Economic Significance of Bicycle-Related Travel in Oregon

The ripple effects of all recreational bicycling in the U.S. add nearly $200 billion to the nation’s economy per year, supporting nearly 1.5 million jobs and providing about $25 billion in tax revenue.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2012 - The Outdoor Recreation Economy 2012

An estimated 13% of all spending on outdoor recreation trips in the U.S. – including camping, fishing, hiking and skiing – is spent on bike trips.
Outdoor Industry Association, 2012 - The Economic Contributions of Outdoor Recreation: Technical Report, 2012

People taking bike-related trips spent $400 million in Oregon in 2012, representing about 4.4% of all direct travel spending in the state.
Dean Runyan Associates, 2013 - The Economic Significance of Bicycle-Related Travel in Oregon


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